Lecture 1 - Excavation
1. To learn the various types of excavation works.
2. To relate the excavation works as per clauses in SMM2
3. To learn the methods of measurement as per clause D.10
– Depth classification
1. Able to differentiate the different types of excavation
bases on clauses D.12.
2. Able to determine the different units of measurement
based on the clauses in D10, D11 and D12.
So we have two excavation depths:
a.The first is the oversite excavation depth
which is 200mm from ground level.
b.The second is the footing excavation depth
which is 2.75m from reduced level.
How do we know the
excavation depth to footing?
1st. The civil engineer will provide the information in two
A. The depth from ground level or from reduced levels.
B. Based on the TBM ( Temporary Bench mark).
Engineers may just give you the depth
2.95m from ground level.
In most cases Engineer will
give the ground level and
How is excavation actually carried
Size 900 x 900x
What is the volume of
b. A + B + C
Reasons for the depth classification
1. Different depth will
result in increased
Increased depth will
pose danger to
workers so temporary
support could be
It will result in using
It enables contractors
to price accordingly
The top of this hill is 5.00m
above sea level.
Clause D12.2 Excavation in rock
Bulldozer with ripper
How to get rid of rocks?
How to measure rock?
1. To measure rock
2. To measure rock
as an extra over
A. Total excavation
B To include rock ie
B as a new item as
Exercise :- Find out the
excavation work to area A and B
Platform level:- 3.50m