澳門疾控中心人才管理
與工作間社區發展
第十屆粵港澳台預防醫學學術會議
湯家耀醫生
2013.05.25
CDC is people
Strategic human resource
management / Talent management


Integrating human resource management
strategies and systems to...
人才數量
人才質量
澳門公共部門人才管理特點
人才管理過程

人力資源工作

公共部門特點

Job analysis

由法例訂定,常與實際需要或戰略優次不一致

Planning

主要由上級喜好和預算可得性決定

Recruitment

法例硬性規定,不能...
澳門公共部門人才管理特點
人才管理過程

人力資源工作

公共部門特點

Performance
appraisal

法例硬性規定,有嚴重缺陷,評價和獎賞人才的效
能很低

Training

Identifying
& assessing
...
澳門公共部門人才管理特點
人才管理過程

人力資源工作

公共部門特點

Motivation

基本上沒有合法和可行的外源性激勵措施

Reward

薪俸由法例硬性規定,與績效無關

Promotion

主要由上級喜好決定,與績效或潛力無...
澳門CDC人才管理策略
1.

Creating a supportive environment
for talent

2.

Developing talent in service

3.

Sourcing talent
1. Creating a supportive environment
for talent
1.

Participatory review of organizational value,
vision and strategic pri...
Servant leadership

Source: developed for this research
2. Developing talent in service
1.

Adopt a systematic and strategic approach,
integrating the elements of induction progr...
3. Sourcing talent
1.

Advocate for top management buy-in of human
resources plan

2.

Develop effective selection tools
Participatory review of organizational
value, vision and strategic priority
使命:疾病預防控制中心是衛生局轄下的公共衛生技術單
位,參與履行衛生局促進及保障健康、預防疾...
工作間的二重性

社區
Community

科層組織
Bureaucratic
organization
Community – a solution for
government failure?


Governments are facing significant internal and external
challenges and ...
Community development (CD)


A process designed to create conditions
of economic and social progress for the
whole commun...
Jack Rothman’s “Three Models”, 1968

Source: Rothman et al, 2001, p.48
Understanding of Community interventions

Source: developed for this research
Critical Components of Community Empowerment,
Rissel, 1994,

Source: Rissel, 1994, p.45
Community development and
health promotion / public health


Community development is becoming one of the most
popular su...
Powerlessness in community development /
health promotion organizations


Many of us are relatively powerless in our orga...
Workplace as community


To view workplace as community is not new



The mechanic view of organization remains in
domin...
Workplace community development
(WCD)


WCD is still theoretical and normative


Merging the best of two worlds (Brown a...
Can Macao CDC staff be empowered with
CD approach, before they use CD approach
to empower the people?

Source: developed f...
《Workplace Community Development
- Empowering Employees in a Public
Service: A field research》


Paradigm: qualitative

...
Quantitative and qualitative pathways
in social sciences

Source: developed for this research
WCD Intervention

Source: developed for this research
Data collection


Participant observation



Unstructured interview



Introspection
Sampling


In terms of time, locations, people, facts and
psychological stances

Forms
− Written or spoken words,
non-ver...
Data analysis

Source: developed for this research
Themes
1.

Sense of community

2.

Participation / Collaboration

3.

Capacity / Power

4.

Performance

5.

Satisfaction
...
Summary of findings
1.

The WCD intervention led to a community
dialogue and interaction process,
characterized by


Self...
Characterization of WCD process

Source: developed for this research
Summary of findings
2.

Active participation and collaboration
had been a major theme in the process,
while structural dif...
Participation in E-dialogues

Source: developed for this research
Summary of findings
4.

Staff perceived partial empowerment,
probably reflecting that some power
relations had been change...
Perceived increases

Source: developed for this research
Summary of findings
6.

Some collaborative bottom-up initiatives
with primary concern of capacity building
for organizatio...
Summary of findings
8.

Perception of the WCD process was
complex, heterogeneous, structured, and
probably subject to dete...
Intersubjectivity

Source: developed for this research
Perceived intervention effects

Source: developed for this research
Attributions of improvements

Source: developed for this research
Conclusions
1.

Field research enables a much deeper
and richer learning from a social process
in a specific context.

2.
...
Conclusions
4.

There may be a synergy between WCD
and talent management


Raising sense of community, strengthening
part...
Conclusions
5.

WCD induces an ongoing social
construction.

6.

The developer/manager in practice has to
be conscious to ...
Implications for theory


Community



Community intervention



Community development



Workplace community developm...
Community – defining features

Source: developed for this research
“Three Elements” as alternative to
Rothman’s Three Models

Source: developed for this research
Community development process model

Source: developed for this research
Contradictions
Driving forces

Goals vs drivers
Axiology vs pragmatism
Power vs powerlessness

Participants

Manager vs de...
Differences between geographic and
workplace communities
Geographic communities
Goals and values

State and local goals in...
Recommendations for practice: CD


Area of practice



Dynamic context and balance of three
elements



Move of the bal...
Recommendations for practice: WCD
1.

Do use both bureaucratic and community
perspectives to view and understand the
workp...
Recommendations for practice: WCD
4.

Map the workplace community balance on the
two continua of activeness – passiveness ...
Particular indications for WCD


Organization that is to develop its client communities;



Organization that needs not ...
Possible precautions for WCD


Organization goals and values are considered
incompatible and irreconcilable with workplac...
Recommendations for practice: WCD
8.

May apply the common theories, methods, and
techniques of CD, while paying attention...
Recommendations for practice: use of
WCD as talent management strategy


Be aware of and prepared for the need of
self-ch...
Of the best leaders,

太上,下知有之……

when the task is
accomplished,

功成事遂,百姓皆謂我自
然。

the people all remark:

We have done it
o...
澳門疾控中心人才管理與工作間社區發展
澳門疾控中心人才管理與工作間社區發展
澳門疾控中心人才管理與工作間社區發展
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Talent management and workplace community development

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澳門疾控中心人才管理與工作間社區發展

  1. 1. 澳門疾控中心人才管理 與工作間社區發展 第十屆粵港澳台預防醫學學術會議 湯家耀醫生 2013.05.25
  2. 2. CDC is people
  3. 3. Strategic human resource management / Talent management  Integrating human resource management strategies and systems to achieve the overall mission, strategies, and success of the firm while meeting the needs of employees and other stakeholders  Integrates a dynamic process of sourcing, identifying and assessing, developing and retaining talent, and ending with the right people at the right time for promotion and succession
  4. 4. 人才數量
  5. 5. 人才質量
  6. 6. 澳門公共部門人才管理特點 人才管理過程 人力資源工作 公共部門特點 Job analysis 由法例訂定,常與實際需要或戰略優次不一致 Planning 主要由上級喜好和預算可得性決定 Recruitment 法例硬性規定,不能採用主動招聘方法 Selection 法例硬性規定,許多方法不能採用 Sourcing
  7. 7. 澳門公共部門人才管理特點 人才管理過程 人力資源工作 公共部門特點 Performance appraisal 法例硬性規定,有嚴重缺陷,評價和獎賞人才的效 能很低 Training Identifying & assessing 常為自發性,沒有戰略計劃 Career planning 法例硬性規定,與個人意願,績效,潛能和戰略優 次等無關 Developing
  8. 8. 澳門公共部門人才管理特點 人才管理過程 人力資源工作 公共部門特點 Motivation 基本上沒有合法和可行的外源性激勵措施 Reward 薪俸由法例硬性規定,與績效無關 Promotion 主要由上級喜好決定,與績效或潛力無關 Succession 常為反應性,沒有戰略計劃 Retaining Ending
  9. 9. 澳門CDC人才管理策略 1. Creating a supportive environment for talent 2. Developing talent in service 3. Sourcing talent
  10. 10. 1. Creating a supportive environment for talent 1. Participatory review of organizational value, vision and strategic priority 2. Introducing new leading / management style, new identities of leader and followers and new leader-followers relationship 3. Empowering staff and enriching work 4. Reinforcing autonomy together with share and support 5. Advocating for worker’s well-being
  11. 11. Servant leadership Source: developed for this research
  12. 12. 2. Developing talent in service 1. Adopt a systematic and strategic approach, integrating the elements of induction program, in service training, mentoring and rotation 2. Assessing competency, performance and potential 3. Reinforcing team learning and organization learning 4. Sharing responsibility for talent development
  13. 13. 3. Sourcing talent 1. Advocate for top management buy-in of human resources plan 2. Develop effective selection tools
  14. 14. Participatory review of organizational value, vision and strategic priority 使命:疾病預防控制中心是衛生局轄下的公共衛生技術單 位,參與履行衛生局促進及保障健康、預防疾病的職能 ,專責統籌和執行群體水平的疾病預防控制工作。 願景:成為公共衛生人才中心,推動澳門公共衛生事業發 展;與其他部門、各界組織和民眾共同努力,保護和促 進澳門人口的健康,為澳門的可持續發展作出貢獻。 價值:忠誠盡責,團隊合作,專業求實,自強不息。
  15. 15. 工作間的二重性 社區 Community 科層組織 Bureaucratic organization
  16. 16. Community – a solution for government failure?  Governments are facing significant internal and external challenges and have to find ways to surpass the problem of underperformance (Klitgaard & Light, 2005).  It is unrealistic to expect workers to be motivated to use empowerment practice and to be successful with clients if the workers themselves feel powerless in their work (Cohen & Austin, 1997).  Communities have a wealth of untapped resources and energy that can be harnessed and mobilized (WHO, 2002).  In organizations, better performance can be produced by a combined organization-community form, i.e. “merging the best of two worlds” (Brown & Isaacs, 1994).
  17. 17. Community development (CD)  A process designed to create conditions of economic and social progress for the whole community with its active participation and the fullest possible reliance on the community's initiative (United Nations, 1955).
  18. 18. Jack Rothman’s “Three Models”, 1968 Source: Rothman et al, 2001, p.48
  19. 19. Understanding of Community interventions Source: developed for this research
  20. 20. Critical Components of Community Empowerment, Rissel, 1994, Source: Rissel, 1994, p.45
  21. 21. Community development and health promotion / public health  Community development is becoming one of the most popular subjects in the context of public health interventions. Although an accurate definition of community development is problematic, a reasonable description would be the empowerment of a community to obtain self reliance and control over the factors that affect their health (Hossain et al, 2004).  Health promotion is one of the major focus areas of community development (Faris and Peterson, 2000; Federation of Community Work Training Groups, 2001), while community development is one of the key approaches and also “the true heart of health promotion” (WHO, 1998; Norheim, 1999; Macdowell et al, 2006; Irvine, 2007; William & Marks, 2011).
  22. 22. Powerlessness in community development / health promotion organizations  Many of us are relatively powerless in our organizations, and need to claim a legitimacy or power for ourselves in order to be effective in our work with less powerful groups external to our organization… Community development, as a pertinent example, has been pithily if cynically described as the point at which the organizationally powerless meet the socially powerless (Labonte, 1993).  Despite the emphasis on empowerment practice, little attention has been paid to the needs of social workers who may feel powerless working in traditional, highly centralized, top-down organizational settings commonly used to deliver social services (Cohen & Austin, 1997).
  23. 23. Workplace as community  To view workplace as community is not new  The mechanic view of organization remains in dominance:  most managers most of the times are satisfied to put aside the community within organization as “informal structures” and “covert rules”  in best case they respond with certain techniques from the management toolbox
  24. 24. Workplace community development (WCD)  WCD is still theoretical and normative  Merging the best of two worlds (Brown and Isaacs, 1994)  Building community into organizations (Brown, 2006)  Fostering Organizational Social Capital (Woods, 2008)
  25. 25. Can Macao CDC staff be empowered with CD approach, before they use CD approach to empower the people? Source: developed for this research
  26. 26. 《Workplace Community Development - Empowering Employees in a Public Service: A field research》  Paradigm: qualitative  Purpose: exploratory  Time: longitudinal case study  Methodology: field research
  27. 27. Quantitative and qualitative pathways in social sciences Source: developed for this research
  28. 28. WCD Intervention Source: developed for this research
  29. 29. Data collection  Participant observation  Unstructured interview  Introspection
  30. 30. Sampling  In terms of time, locations, people, facts and psychological stances Forms − Written or spoken words, non-verbal communications − Behaviors, actions, activities − Confrontations, interactions − Situations, incidents, events Characteristics − New, unusual, unanticipated − Atypical, deviant − Expected but not happened − Seemingly related, positively or negatively, to participatory management, workplace community and community initiative, staff power and empowerment, job satisfaction, performance Source: developed for this research
  31. 31. Data analysis Source: developed for this research
  32. 32. Themes 1. Sense of community 2. Participation / Collaboration 3. Capacity / Power 4. Performance 5. Satisfaction 6. Conflicts 7. Dilemmas
  33. 33. Summary of findings 1. The WCD intervention led to a community dialogue and interaction process, characterized by  Self development,  Community dynamics,  Tangible outputs, and  Ongoing social construction.
  34. 34. Characterization of WCD process Source: developed for this research
  35. 35. Summary of findings 2. Active participation and collaboration had been a major theme in the process, while structural differences in participation and latent resistance probably existed. 3. Community members consciously contributed to the organizational goals and values.
  36. 36. Participation in E-dialogues Source: developed for this research
  37. 37. Summary of findings 4. Staff perceived partial empowerment, probably reflecting that some power relations had been changed but the power structure remains. 5. Some part of the staff perceived improvement in overall performance and satisfaction.
  38. 38. Perceived increases Source: developed for this research
  39. 39. Summary of findings 6. Some collaborative bottom-up initiatives with primary concern of capacity building for organizational goals were observed. 7. Nothing really surprising was observed, but conflicts seemed naturally strengthened.
  40. 40. Summary of findings 8. Perception of the WCD process was complex, heterogeneous, structured, and probably subject to determinants of structural, interfacing, and personal origins. The perceptions of the developer, active community members, and new comers, were largely cross-matched. For these key participants, the WCD process had led to positive and meaningful social interactions and changes.
  41. 41. Intersubjectivity Source: developed for this research
  42. 42. Perceived intervention effects Source: developed for this research
  43. 43. Attributions of improvements Source: developed for this research
  44. 44. Conclusions 1. Field research enables a much deeper and richer learning from a social process in a specific context. 2. Workplace bureaucracy–community duality is supported and WCD is legitimate. 3. WCD is practicable.
  45. 45. Conclusions 4. There may be a synergy between WCD and talent management  Raising sense of community, strengthening participation and joint actions, and increasing selfefficacy and capacity of community;  Promoting joint visioning, shared understanding and consensual resolutions;  Empowering both the community members and the developer, and probably increasing human and social capitals of the organization;  Positive impacts on organizational performance and satisfaction.
  46. 46. Conclusions 5. WCD induces an ongoing social construction. 6. The developer/manager in practice has to be conscious to and learn to live with multiple contradictions.
  47. 47. Implications for theory  Community  Community intervention  Community development  Workplace community development
  48. 48. Community – defining features Source: developed for this research
  49. 49. “Three Elements” as alternative to Rothman’s Three Models Source: developed for this research
  50. 50. Community development process model Source: developed for this research
  51. 51. Contradictions Driving forces Goals vs drivers Axiology vs pragmatism Power vs powerlessness Participants Manager vs developer Inclusiveness vs structure Interactions Needs vs assets Catalysis vs ownership Manipulation vs self-determination Empowering vs disempowering Collaboration vs conflict Wholeness vs heterogeneity Equity vs system Products & outcomes Capacity vs improvement Effectiveness vs understanding Source: developed for this research
  52. 52. Differences between geographic and workplace communities Geographic communities Goals and values State and local goals in a whole- and-parts Workplace communities Organization goals and values are primary, relationship, often based on shared or compatible mandatory, and possibly incompatible with values Management hierarchy is the single dominant power structure, seldom counterbalanced civil society and media internally Government, external assistant agency, local Managers must play a key role, emerging leaders, NGO and local leaders may play the role as contracted external consultants, and worker developer Developer Government hierarchy is one dominant power structure, often counterbalanced by the market, Power structure community goals and values unions seem also possible play the role as developer Community Community members are not organized in one All community members are organized on members command hierarchy hierarchical levels in command lines Organization Often involves building informal groups, formal May be in forms of autonomous work group, development NGOs and networks, independent of the quality circle, worker council, etc., must be government supported by the management Source: developed for this research
  53. 53. Recommendations for practice: CD  Area of practice  Dynamic context and balance of three elements  Move of the balance  Contradictions
  54. 54. Recommendations for practice: WCD 1. Do use both bureaucratic and community perspectives to view and understand the workplace and its dynamics; 2. Clarify organization goals and values and management positions to CD values and principles; 3. Assess organization well-being and workplace community well-being, as well as the relation between them;
  55. 55. Recommendations for practice: WCD 4. Map the workplace community balance on the two continua of activeness – passiveness and collaboration – conflict; 5. Assess if there are pragmatic reasons that requires a move of the community balance towards the angle of CD; 6. Be aware of particular indications for WCD. 7. Check if there are possible precautions for WCD.
  56. 56. Particular indications for WCD  Organization that is to develop its client communities;  Organization that needs not only strong management but also autonomy, creativity and innovation from the staff, so as to accomplish complex and exigent missions, and effectively respond to critical threats and opportunities;  Organization that is heavily constrained by the bureaucracy, manifesting illnesses of inefficiency, indifference, group thinking, social loafing, conflicts and separatism; and most important,  Organization where people are not feeling well about their workplace.
  57. 57. Possible precautions for WCD  Organization goals and values are considered incompatible and irreconcilable with workplace community goals and values;  Organization that needs to perform under absolute dominance of power structure and quiescence of community members, e.g., an army.
  58. 58. Recommendations for practice: WCD 8. May apply the common theories, methods, and techniques of CD, while paying attention to differences between workplace communities and geographic communities; 9. Be prepared to change one’s self first so as to work with the colleagues in new ways; 10. Live with and learn from the rich contradictions in WCD process, while retain all the time the simple and basic truth: the activeness and collaboration of community members.
  59. 59. Recommendations for practice: use of WCD as talent management strategy  Be aware of and prepared for the need of self-changing before catalyzing changes in environment and others;  Be aware of and prepared for that WCD does not limit its perspective to motivate workers for technical capacity building and organization performance, but goes much further to empower community members to define and develop their common future.
  60. 60. Of the best leaders, 太上,下知有之…… when the task is accomplished, 功成事遂,百姓皆謂我自 然。 the people all remark: We have done it ourselves. (Lao Tzu, 580BC) 《道德經》十七章

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