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Gis application in civil engineering



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gis application in civil engineering

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Gis application in civil engineering

  1. 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I here by express my sincere gratitiude to the civil engineering department of SRE RAMA GOVT. POLY TECHNIC COLLEGE VALAPAD. for the invaluable guidence in preparing this seminar. I also express my sincere thanks to the head of department of civil engineering. THOMAS JOHN V. Sir. Teacher gave me general idea regarding this seminar also thanks to our tutor JAYALAKSHMI teacher and students of the class for the support and encouragement.
  2. 2. ABSTRACT Geographic information system (GIS) technlogy is attracting interest from a broad range of civil engineering diciplines because of its potential to provide a new enivironment for problem solving which could lower costs, improve quality, and support multidiscipline analysis for complex projects. This paper reviews the primary components and capabilities of GIS technology and shows how it is used in many civil engineering applications including infrastructure management, transportation, land use planning, water resources engineering, and environmental engineering
  3. 3. CONTENT Introduction What is GIS Why is GIS Author, Serve, Use Infrastructure life cycle Major GIS functions Data Integration, Visualization, and Management Infrastructure Management Use GIS for more efficient Conclusion References
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based tool for the input, storage, management, retrieval and output of information. The information in a GIS relates to the characteristics of geographic locations or areas. In other words, a GIS answers questions about where things are or about what is located at a given location. The term “GIS” has different meanings in different contexts. It can relate to the overall system of hardware and software that is used to work with spatial information. It might refer to a particular software package that is designed to handle information about geographic features. It may relate to an application, for example a comprehensive geographic database of a country or region. Data capturing from Aerial Photography and / or Remote sensing systems were made with the help of Global Positioning Systems, Digitizing and Scanning. Civil engineering is about developing and sustaining infrastructure. The profession covers many areas of interest and a broad range of expertise. As a result, civil engineers work with a voluminous amount of data from a variety of sources. Geographic information system (GIS) technology provides the tools for creating, managing, analyzing, and visualizing the data associated with developing and managing infrastructure. GIS allows civil engineers to manage and share data and turn it into easily understood reports and visualizations that can be analyzed and communicated to others. This data can be related to both a project and its broader geographic context. It also helps organizations and governments work together to develop strategies for sustainable development. Thus, GIS is playing an increasingly important role in civil engineering companies, supporting all phases of the infrastructure life cycle.
  5. 5. What is GIS ? Geographic Information System (GIS) is a system intended to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. In the merging of cartography, statistical analysis, and database technology. Why G I S ? GIS software is interoperable, supporting the many data formats used in the infrastructure life cycle and allowing civil engineers to provide data to various agencies in the required format while maintaining the data’s core integrity. GIS technology provides a central location to conduct spatial analysis, overlay data, and integrate other solutions and systems. Built on a database rather than individual project files, GIS enables civil engineers to easily manage, reuse, share, and analyze data, saving time and resources. Author, Serve, Use GIS lets you easily author data, maps, globes, and models on the desktop; serve them to a GIS server; and use them through Web, desktop, and mobile clients
  6. 6. Spatial Analysis GIS provides tools for modeling information to support more intelligent, faster decisions; discover and characterize geographic patterns; optimize network and resource allocation; and automate workflows through a visual modeling environment. Visualization and Cartography Through the use of 2D and 3D clients, you can experience a more interactive way of seeing data, visualizing change over time and space to identify patterns and trends, and disseminate knowledge to engineers, managers, clients, regulators, and field-based personnel. Spatial Data Management GIS organizes and manages geographic information to support fast and efficient visualization and analytic applications, regardless of the amount of data held within an organization. Agencies securely store and manage vast amounts of spatial information and propagate data changes between multiple data sources INFRASTRUCTURE LIFE CYCLE A centralized information system based on ESRI® GIS software provides civil engineers with the IT framework for maintaining and deploying critical data and applications across every aspect of the infrastructure project life cycle including planning and design, data collection and management, spatial analysis, construction, and operations management and maintenance. This architecture
  7. 7. provides the tools to assemble intelligent GIS applications and improve a project process by giving engineers, construction contractors, surveyors, and analysts a single data source from which to work. Centrally hosting applications and data makes it easy to manage, organize, and integrate geographic data, including CAD data, from existing databases to visualize, analyze, and make decisions. The system helps combat data communication errors, eliminating the need for multiple, flat files in disparate systems. Planning It contains high-level planning functions for site location including environmental impact mitigation, economic analysis, regulatory permitting, alternative siting analysis, routing utilities, what-if scenarios, visualization of concept options, data overlay, modeling, and benefit/cost alternatives analysis Data Collection It has specific functions to collect precise site data used for predesign analysis; design; and calculations including field survey, topography, soils, subsurface geology, traffic, lidar, photo grammetry, imaging, sensitive environmental areas, wetlands, hydrology, and other site specific design-grade data. Environmental Analysis It provides analysis to support design including hydrology analysis, volume calculations, soil load analysis, traffic capacity, environmental impact, slope stability, materials consumption, runoff, erosion control, and air emissions. During environmental analysis, view project maps, site photos, CAD files, survey measurements, and
  8. 8. 3D renderings. Analysis of the environment with a GIS allows you to view patterns, trends, and relationships that were not clearly evident without the visualization of data Design It allows creation of new infrastructure data for new civil works including grading, contouring, specifications, cross sections, design calculations, mass haul plans, environmental mitigation plans, and equipment staging. This includes integration with traditional design tools such as CAD and databases for new design capabilities Construction It provides the mechanics and management for building new infrastructure including takeoffs; machine control; earth movement; intermediate construction, volume and material, and payment calculations; materials tracking; logistics; schedules; and traffic management. Data Collection As - Built Surveying GIS provides the tools to collect precise site data and document existing conditions. With as-built surveying infrastructure data, operators use defined, operational, industry-standard data models. As-built surveying with GIS technology permits the surveyor to deliver data into operational GIS, eliminating costly data conversion and reducing errors
  9. 9. Operations/Maintenance It models utility and infrastructure networks and integrates other related types of data such as raster images and CAD drawings. Spatial selection and display tools allow you to visualize scheduled work, ongoing activities, recurring maintenance problems, and historical information. The topological characteristics of a GIS database can support network tracing and can be used to analyze specific properties or services that may be impacted by such events as stoppages, main breaks, and drainage defects. An engineering information system based on enterprise GIS technology streamlines activities from field data collection to project management. With this single relational database, you are connected to all your clients; construction sites; and inventory, network, and maintenance data. A server-based data management environment leveraging GIS capabilities promotes efficient workflows in data and project management. It allows you to streamline your work processes in data capture, editing, analysis, visualization, and design. With an ability to communicate changes to an entire team rapidly, GIS gives your entire team access to the most current information supporting better decision making. GIS enhances workflows in • Project management • Analysis and design • Logistics GIS provides • Data accuracy • Data sharing • Analysis capability • Modeling
  10. 10. GIS data Models Despite the heterogeneity of the information that can be stored in a GIS, there are only a few common methods of representing spatial information in a GIS database. In developing a GIS application, real world features need to be translated into simplified representations that can be stored and manipulated in a computer. Two data models are internal representations of geographic information and currently dominate commercial GIS software: The vector data model, is used to symbolize discrete features such as houses, roads or districts. Raster data model is most often used to represent continuously varying phenomena such as elevation or climate, but is also used to store pictures or image data from satellites and plane based cameras. For census applications, the vector data model is usually more useful, although many auxiliary data sets are more appropriately stored using the raster Major GIS functions There are two major functions of GIS: • Data capture Graphic data: digitized, converted from existing data Attribute data: keyed-in, loaded from existing data files • Data storage and manipulation File management Editing • Data analysis Database query Spatial analysis Modeling • Data display Maps Reports
  11. 11. Data Integration, Visualization, and Management You can use GIS to combine and interpret data from many different formats. GIS allows you to integrate satellite images, CAD drawings, and parcel maps to create a visual overview of a project and turn it into easily understood reports. It accepts CAD data without conversion and includes it as a layer in a geodatabase A GIS geodatabase gives you the ability to handle rich data types and apply sophisticated rules and relationships. In addition to managing large volumes of geographic data, it also implements sophisticated business logic that, for example, builds relationships between data types such as topologies and geometric networks, validates data, and controls access. Data management tools scale to meet your needs, from the individual to workgroups and large, multiuser enterprises. Infrastructure Management Visualizing assets and the surrounding environment when you build, upgrade, and repair infrastructure helps you decide how to prioritize your work, convince others of its importance, and make good decisions about how to move forward with your plans. Having an accurate, clear picture of the project helps you better understand needs, reduce problems, and mitigate costs and environmental impacts. These processes are improved when GIS is the core system for data management and visualization. With all the demands on your time, using tools that streamline your business processes and provide you with the best mapping and visualization makes sense. GIS can help you present information in a straightforward way to partners in your projects, government officials, and the public. With ArcGIS Server technology, you can take maps that you have created with ArcGIS Desktop software and publish them over the Web so you, your partners, and your staff in the field can see how a project is progressing
  12. 12. . Use GIS for more efficient • Environmental analysis • Infrastructure design • Transportation • Watershed management Land fill site selection Town planning and urban development SITE ANALYSIS GIS quickly incorporates and analyzes many types of information and images for site analysis. Highly accurate results displayed geographically provide insight into connections and relationships, and customers relate easily to a recognizable map. The basemap can include parcel maps, zoning and city designations, environmental protection areas, aerial photos, and topographic and soil maps. Overlays of relevant data on population growth, commercial activity, and traffic flow combine to rapidly paint a meaningful picture of a site’s opportunities and constraints. Civil engineers use GIS to keep track of multiple urban and regional indicators, forecast future community needs, and plan accordingly to guarantee quality of life in livable communities for everyone. Federal, regional, state, and local planning agencies have realized the power of GIS to identify problems, respond to them efficiently, and share the results with each other. A GIS solution provides tools to help them reach their agency missions while doing more and spending less CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION Engineers responsible for the safety and security of buildings, bridges, utilities, and other critical infrastructure need a comprehensive decision-making tool for emergency assessment,
  13. 13. preparation response, and recovery activities. GIS technology provides a situational awareness tool for fusing information, from flood elevation and evacuation routes to a bridge’s structural specifications and inspection results. With critical infrastructure information stored in a geo database, you can display that information in real time on a Web-based map. Use GIS tools to combine and analyze specific data needed to meet a required task. Add current traffic and weather data, draw buffer protection zones, and share new changes in real time. Emergency managers use the enterprise GIS database to • Identify critical infrastructure and hazards within affected areas. • Identify medical resources and route patients to nearest facilities. • Prepare evacuation routes for at-risk populations. • Provide accurate damage estimates. • Identify priorities for short-term recovery needs. • Assess long-term recovery needs. TRANSPORTATION Geographic information systems for transportation (GIS-T) are Inter connected hardware, software, data, people, organizations and institutional arrangements for collecting, storing, analyzing and communicating particular types of information about the earth. The particular types of information are transportation systems and geographic regions that affect or are affected by these systems. GIS-T have "arrived" and represent one of the most important applications of GIS. The GIS-T community has its own, widely recognized moniker (namely, "GIS-T"). There are dedicated conferences and well-attended session tracks at mainstream conferences. Papers and articles about GIS-T can be found in a widerange of general and specialized GIS journals and trade publications. GIS-T consultants abound. There are career opportunities the public and private sectors. Indeed, some have recognized the recent
  14. 14. emergence of a "second GIS-T renaissance" as GIS data and services continue to improve in leaps and bounds. LAND FILL SITE SELECTION GIS (Geographic Information Systems) is a useful tool that can be utilized in the search for suitable new landfill sites. GIS is a powerful technology which permits accurate processing of spatial data covering a large number of themes, from a variety of sources, specifically cartographic/numeric data, enabling processing, overlay and derivation of thematic maps, enabling tailored solutions for a whole series of applications to be furnished. Advent of highly sophisticated computerised GIS systems, digitised map data, and Landsat satellites and other remote sensing sensors that help to define infrastuctural and land use patterns, have dramatically increased the potential of GIS to aid in the development of a more systematic approach to landfill site selection. Such an approach should ideally combine computerised GIS and geotechnical site investigation methodologies (Allen et al, 1997). There is also a need for greater transparency in the site selection procedure, in order to promote public confidence in the nonbiased scientific basis of the process as a counter to the widely-encountered NIMBY syndrome. TOWN PLANNING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT The unprecedented growth of urbanization in India has given rise to problems of housing, sanitation, power, water supply, disposal of effluents and environmental pollution. Systematic mapping and periodic monitoring of urban land use is therefore necessary for proper planning management and policy making. For sustainable development of urban agglomeration, optimal urban land use plans and resources development models need to be generated by integrating the information on natural resources, demographic and
  15. 15. socio – economic data in a GIS domain with the currently available satellite data. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT GIS improves calculations for watershed characteristics, flow statics, debris flow probability, and facilitates the watershed delineation by using Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). It provides a consistent method for watershed analysis using DEMs and standardized datasets such as land cover, soil properties, gauging station locations, and climate variables. ArcGIS with Arc Hydro gives you the flexibility to combine watershed datasets from one map source with stream and river networks. Use ArcGIS Spatial Analyst for hydrologic analysis such as calculating flow across an elevation surfaces, which provides the basis for creating stream networks and watersheds; calculating flow path length; and assigning stream orders.
  16. 16. CONCLUSION There are ample evidences of applying the recent advances in satellite based remote sensing and GIS technology in various fields of civil engineering. India’s space programme ensuring continuous availability of RS data and launching of future satellites carrying high spatial and spectral resolution sensors can go a long way in providing useful information required for civil engineering application.
  17. 17. References