Men's impact on the environment


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Men's impact on the environment

  1. 1. Men’s impact on the environment
  2. 2. Soil pollution The soil is a limited no cycling resource due to the fast and increasing degradation.
  3. 3. Causes of the soil pollution Agriculture. In this activity, there are a lot of fertilizers and insecticides use to combat the pests just like the vegetation burn for the faster growing of the plants. The trash has also a very important role on soil degradation due to the large amount of toxic components.
  4. 4. Consequences of the soil pollution The use of fertilizers and insecticides are aggressive to the soil, plants and animals. With the vegetation burn the ground stays exposed to the sun and wind making a nutrients lost and soil erosion. The dumps make soil contamination and they could even contaminate the underground water
  5. 5. Water pollution When we talk about water pollution we shouldn’t just talk about the superficial water but we should also talk about the underground water
  6. 6. Causes of the water pollution One of the main sources of water pollution are the urban trash • industrial trash. In this kind of trash, the largely industrial dumps are contaminating the rivers and ocean • rural trash . The cow and the pigs centers and other similar places sewage are being lunched directly to the water without any treatment, causing pollution in rivers and other sources of ground water • the dump of domestic trash into the rivers or oceans • the use of chemical products from agriculture are being transported by the rain into the rivers and oceans, polluting them and putting in dangerous all wildlife
  7. 7. Consequences of the water pollution These pollutants are a big threat to the water quality, health and the environment, because they are capable of provoking huge damage to the live organisms e in consequence of that, it can damage our health and our food chain.
  8. 8. Atmosphere pollution The atmosphere pollution is the main result of the gases liberation from big chemical industries which can put in danger the health of human beings, animals and plants and it also can contribute for the greenhouse effect.
  9. 9. The causes of air pollution The main reasons that have contributed for the increase of air pollution are: • The industrial activity. This activity releases gases and clouds of dust in such large amounts that they fail to be absorved by the environment and they accumulate in the atmosphere. • Road traffic. The gases and the chemical substances released by vehicles are the result of the comsumption of fossil fuels, such as oil.
  10. 10. Consequences of air pollution Smog: It is a combination of smoke and fog in urban/industrial areas, leading to a high concentration of fumes in the lower layer of the atmosphere (troposphere). It can cause asthma, bronchitis, breathing and heart problems as well. Acid rain: Acid rain is the result of releasing sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide (proceeding from industry and traffic) into the atmosphere. The rainfall causes the acidification of soils, compromising agriculture, plants and trees. Another consequence is the contamination of water.
  11. 11. continuation The greenhouse effect: The greenhouse effect is a result of the excessive heating of the Earth’s atmosphere and it leads to the global heating of the planet which can result in the melting of ice in polar regions and the raise of the ocean level, among other climate changes. The destruction of the ozone layer: The existence of ozone in the stratosphere is a vital issue for planet Earth because it absorves great part of the ultraviolet radiation which, in excess, is harmful for living beings and the environment
  12. 12. Extinction of natural resources Natural resources must be managed in a sustainable way so that they can be used now and in the future. Nevertheless, nowadays the world is facing the risk of collapse of some of these resources due to its overexploitation. When we talk about natural resources we don’t mean only oil, natural gas or coal. Food also makes part of this list as well as drinking water, the most precious asset for the continuity of life in the planet. Due to the excessive and unnecessary use of these resources by mankind, scientists predict their extinction in a near future, endangering the natural balance of the Earth.
  13. 13. Water The supply of freshwater in the planet is threatened as well as our survival. More than i billion people (18% of the world population) don’t have access to a minimum quantity of water for comsumption. If we keep our present consumption and pollution patterns, the situation will quickly worsen.
  14. 14. Food Reports disclosed by FAO, a branch of the UN for agriculture and nutrition, show that in order to feed the human population in 2050 – we will be 9,1 billion inhabitants by then – the amount of food produced in our planet will increase in about 70%. However, it will be possible to reach that target, although there are many difficulties. Among them stands out global warming, which has a negative interference with the agricultural production in many countries.
  15. 15. Oil The black gold will come to na end one day. The International Energy Agency reported in 2010 that the production of oil will reach its peak around 2035. After that, the production will gradually decrease. The world will have to learn to live without oil, wich will carry gret changes in Man’s way of life as he is heavily dependent of fossil fuel.
  16. 16. Coal Among fossil fuels, coal is the one that has reserves spread throughout the largest number of countries. The biggest reserves are in the USA, Russia, China, India and Australia. Scientists believe that these reserves will be over in a199 years period if the consumption rate continues at the present speed.
  17. 17. Copper Copper is one of the most used metals by mankind and thanes to it the Metal Age was born. It is present in electric cables, electronic equipment and jewels, amongst others. Unlike other non-renewable materials, copper is recyclable. The increase of its consumption in the last few years has been huge. Scientists estimate a shortage of this metal around 2100.
  18. 18. Natural gas It is used in industry and also by vehicles. Natural gases another fossil fuel and therefore, it has a limited lifetime. It is expected that this fuel becomes completely drained in a 45,7 years period.
  19. 19. Forest Human intervention in temperate regions has destroyed vast areas of forest in order to use the soil for agriculture. Nowadays, the temperate forest with primitive features is limited to a few thousand square kilometers. The decrease of the forested area has involved a reduction of the animal population in those regions, with some species changing their overall diet, according with the crops that exist in those areas. Areas of the temperate forest have suffered, with climate change, an increase of invasive species and pollution, which has dramatically influenced the biodiversity of those regions
  20. 20. Deforestation Deforestation is the process of permanent and complete disappearance of forests.
  21. 21. Reasons for deforestation Urbanisation Construction of infrastructures The use of raw materials Agricultural use
  22. 22. Portuguese forest The Portuguese forest is a very ancient ecosystem, initially with deciduous trees in the north of the country and evergreen trees in the south. At present, the Portuguese forest area sums up to 3.3 million hectares. Portugal possesses one of the largest forest areas in Europe.
  23. 23. Types of forest in Portugal Pinewood: An ecosystem dominated by the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and / or by the stone pine(Pinus pinea) Montado (cork oak forests): An ecosystem dominated by the cork oak (Quercus suber) Soutos (chestnut woods): An ecosystem dominated by the chestnuts (Castanea sativa) “Laurissilva” Forest with trees of the laurel family “Fagossilva” Forest with trees of the oak trees.
  24. 24. Importance of forest The Portuguese forest bears activities such as: • The production of cork, wood pulp (cellulose), wood, silvo- pastoral, hunting, fishing and beekeeping; • Tourism • Energy • The cycles of water, of oxygen and carbon as well as the maintenance of biodiversity
  25. 25. Portugal Forest Fires Main causes of forest fires: • Crime • Failure to clean up woodlands • Excessive number of resinous trees (pine trees and eucalyptus) • Insufficient forest vigilance
  26. 26. Portugal Forest fires
  27. 27. The end Work made by: Maria Soares Débora Cabral Joana Freitas From Portugal