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Emergency Disaster Plan

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  • Environmental Health Project

    1. 1. Environmental Health Emergency Response Action Plan Anne Marie Aycock, Kaitlyn Byer, Daniel Dallas, Denise Flook, Elizabeth Holcomb, An Nguyen, Jeshua Pringle, Shanna Siegel
    2. 2. Disasters Happen –Planning Saves Lives
    3. 3. Phases of Emergency Management <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery </li></ul>
    4. 4. Environmental Health Disaster Planning <ul><li>Planning must begin on local level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All entities such as PH, Hospitals, EMS, GEMA, Fire, police, etc. must be included </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain aid agreements from local, regional and state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assess risks in the community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability of risk of hurricanes, tornadoes, flooding, local business/factories, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is capacity of community to respond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is risk to humans – physical and emotional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plan to minimize risks and mitigate adverse impact of disaster </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans must include redundancy </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Disaster Response <ul><li>Assessment of disaster and implementation of plan </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is key </li></ul><ul><li>Command Center Activation </li></ul>
    6. 6. Incident Command System Command Operations Planning Logistics Financial/Admin
    7. 7. Disaster Chain of Response Local Regional State Federal
    8. 8. Emergency Housing
    9. 9. State & National Agencies: Emergency Housing <ul><li>GEMA: Public Assistance Division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administers federal dollars to eligible communities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work with local governments to ensure that reconstruction reduces the risk of further losses. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FEMA Housing Assistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent housing construction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American Red Cross Housing Assistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary Housing in Shelters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency Home repairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rent assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referral to community and government agencies if long-term housing options are needed. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Emergency Housing Guidelines <ul><li>Short-term Shelter in Existing Buildings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools, community centers, offices, sports facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evacuation centers should be as close as possible to the neighborhood or rural community concerned, but far enough from the disaster site to avoid secondary hazards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended only for short periods of time and must be cleaned and maintained intensively, to avoid a rapid deterioration in environmental health conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Existing Emergency Settlements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tents or makeshift shelters made of plastic sheets, tarpaulins, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure location where water, sanitation and food can be provided. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established rapidly with long-term sustainability. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Emergency Housing Guidelines <ul><li>Longer-Term Issues for Emergency Settlements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychosocial and other health problems associated with alienation, overcrowding, and loss of control and purpose will surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable and durable water-supply, waste disposal systems, laundry and wastewater facilities must be established. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and repair schedules must be established and followed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe areas for children to play should be designated and dangerous areas blocked by fences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community participation is the key in camp management. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Water
    13. 14. Water <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assure availability of safe drinking water to public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent waterborne diseases </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Water <ul><li>Damage Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact water purveyors in damaged areas to assess damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locate labs to conduct testing or back-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform water testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take bacteriological sample </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emergency Water Supplies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange for distribution of emergency H20 to damaged areas through local Emergency Services Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate delivery system </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. Water <ul><li>Public Notice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate availability and location of emergency sources of H20 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide info on water needs and rationing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educate on water disinfection and storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach wells owners on disinfection process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repair System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore/replace treatment, storage, distribution facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist/inform on disinfection of distribution, storage, and delivery of water </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. Liquid Waste & Sewage
    17. 18. Liquid Waste / Sewage <ul><li>GOAL: Ensure proper handling and disposal of human waste in order to- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st Prevent Spread of Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2nd Prevent Contamination of Water Supplies </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Situation 1- Septic Tank (Lucky) <ul><li>What Will Happen? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of Water Pressure to Home </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What Should I Do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manually Fill Toilet’s Holding Tank Using: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pool Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>River/stream Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Trap runoff from gutters!* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This can be done by placing buckets underneath your home’s gutter drainpipes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Situation 2- City Sewage (unlucky) <ul><li>What will Happen? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipal sewage systems could lose pressure and would rapidly overfill </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What Should I Do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If stoppage in sewer lines is suspected or obvious, close all sinks and drains, and stop flushing the toilet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If I Can’t Flush the Toilet, What Can I Use? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large trash bags can be used as toilet liners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Camp toilets, RV toilets, porta-potties,etc. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Solid Waste Disposal
    21. 22. Solid Waste Disposal <ul><li>What is Solid Waste? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Garbage or refuse left over from a disaster whether natural or manmade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emergency Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Debris collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling or disposal options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of hazardous waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissemination of information to the public </li></ul></ul>Source: http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/disaster/disaster.htm#intro
    22. 23. Solid Waste Disposal: Preparation for Disasters <ul><li>Floods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchor fuel tanks, build with flood-resistant materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Earthquakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchor large equipment/furniture, brace cripple walls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes/Tornados </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce windows/garage doors, remove close trees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manmade Disasters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve building science </li></ul></ul>Source: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/property.shtm#4
    23. 25. Solid Waste Disposal: Recycling Disaster Debris <ul><li>Trees and shrubs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mulch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concrete and asphalt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-based road building </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycled for scrap metal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscaping applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dirt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landfill cover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil amendment (farmers) </li></ul></ul>Source: http://www.epa.gov/garbage/debris.htm
    24. 26. Hazardous Waste Management
    25. 27. Hazardous Waste Management <ul><li>Identification of hazardous waste </li></ul><ul><li>Provide protective gear for workers or other individuals who may come in contact with the hazardous waste </li></ul><ul><li>Establish “zones” for controlling contamination and specify “pick up” zones </li></ul><ul><li>Waste transfer stations will need to be present to contain hazardous wastes before they are transferred to waste storage facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous wastes will be transferred by trucks or tank cars and emptied into containers, tanks, or containment buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Disposal of waste by landfilling or injection wells should occur where appropriate to protect groundwater supply </li></ul>
    26. 28. Medical Waste Management <ul><li>Medical waste includes any solid waste that is generated in the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization production/testing materials </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals and other medical facilities should be monitored to ensure that medical waste is being properly disposed of </li></ul><ul><li>Potential injury and transmission of disease to people involved in medical waste collection can be prevented by providing protective gear and limiting occupational exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>Disposal using various decontamination methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incineration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irradiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autoclaving </li></ul></ul>
    27. 29. Vector Control
    28. 30. Mosquitoes <ul><li>Larvae found in and near standing water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post Disaster Control: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rigorous environmental sanitation and management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restoration of piped water supply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restoration of sewer systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insecticides- 1% temephos sand granules and methoprene miniquets, organophosphates, carbamates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, pyrethroids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Adults found in shaded/ dark places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post disaster control: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insecticides- pirimiphosmethyl, malathion, resmerthrin, and synergized pyrethroids </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 32. Flies <ul><li>Thrive in unsanitary conditions – prevention recommended over control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post Disaster Prevention: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rigorous sanitation control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add diesel fuel to pit latrines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quick disposal of dead animals (bury, cremate) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post Disaster Control: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cloth over doorways to prevent entry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sticky tape traps </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 33. Rodents <ul><li>Sanitation important part of control </li></ul><ul><li>Post Disaster Control: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rodenticides (= anticoagulants)- chronic type (multiple dose, slow acting) and acute type (single dose, fast acting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust rodent areas with carbaryl, diazinon, or pirimiphos-methyl to control rodent ectoparasites </li></ul></ul>
    31. 34. Lice, fleas, mites, ticks, and others <ul><li>Louce- dusting with temphos, malathion, or gamma HCH; fumigation with HCN, methyl bromide, or ethyl formate </li></ul><ul><li>Fleas- treat individual bites with ointment, improve sanitary habits and remove animal source </li></ul><ul><li>Mites (S. scabiei): gamma HCH, crotamiton, precipitated sulfur in petrolatum, or an emusion of benzyl benzoate </li></ul><ul><li>Ticks: clear vegetation 50-100 feet from where people are living; spray chlorpyrifos or tetrachlorvinphos </li></ul><ul><li>Ants, spiders, scorpions: shake out clothes and shoes before dressing, check sheets before getting into bed, improve general sanitation, remove debris </li></ul><ul><li>Bedbugs: reduce crowding, spray malathion </li></ul><ul><li>Poisonous snakes: clean debris (especially around living quarters), cut grass, keep anti-venom on hand </li></ul>
    32. 35. Disasters Happen – Be Prepared <ul><li>Plan from personal to national perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitigate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Command Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide essential services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure safety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional, health recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebuild </li></ul></ul>
    33. 36. Questions?