2. DEFINITION OF GENDER EQUALITY
• Gender equality is the measurable equal
representation of women and men. Gender
equality does not imply that women and men
are the same, but that they have equal value
and should be accorded equal treatment.
• The United Nations regards gender equality as a
3. HISTORY OF GENDER INEQUALITY
Throughout history, women have battled with discrimination. This
was a burden both inside as well as outside the home. Women did
not have the legal rights that they do today.
In the past, women were commonly believed to have smaller brains
Women were only viewed as useful in the household and to take part
in chores such as cooking and cleaning.
Women’s perspective was not of any value and they were not
allowed to vote
4. BARRIERS OF
• Professional Obstacles
• Feticide and Infanticide
• Feminization of Poverty
• Access to Healthcare
• Political Participation
• Education Attainment
Around the world Today
5. GENDER PROFESSIONALISM & INEQUITY
For decades women have fought to protect
their right to be equals to men within the
workplace. Even with all the landmarks these
women have made, they still only earn 77 cents to
every dollar to their male coworkers. This includes
in the same position with the same experience.
Statistics show that one in every three females are
likely "to be beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise
abused in her lifetime“. This includes in both the
developing as well as the developed world. Violence
against women in the form of rape, spousal abuse,
child abuse or spousal killing is routine behavior.
This map shows the common abuse of women
throughout the world and to what levels.
7. FEMALE FETICIDE
Feticide and infanticide are the act of aborting a fetus or an
infant. This is increasingly more popular in countries such as
India and China. The reason behind this has to do with the fact
that women are less valuable than men in these countries. It is
apparent that in some countries the gender ratio is skewed. In
2001 the gender ratio in India was 927 females to 1000 males.
This entirely results in gender inequality.
And the worlds “missing women”
8. FEMINIZATION OF POVERTY
More than 1.5 billion people in the world live on
less than one dollar a day, and the majority of
those people are women. The United Nations often
states that women do two-thirds of the world's
work, receive 10 percent of the world's income and
own 1 percent of the means of production. Also,
many women can not apply for loans which often
leads to poverty and them not being able to
support their families. Many female entrepreneurs
have been foiled and left to dwell in poverty
because of restricted access to basic legal rights.
9. ACCESS TO HEALTHCARE
Many women in developing countries don’t receive the necessary healthcare. Many female entrepreneurs
have been foiled and left to dwell in poverty because of restricted access to basic legal rights. Statistics
show that this is more than 500,000 deaths every year, many of which could have been prevented if the
woman had been allowed to receive the proper healthcare.
This however is less common in developed countries such as Canada, and the United States.
10. POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
Despite women taking part of 50% of the world’s
population, research has proved that they only take
up approximately 15.6% of political seats.
It is debateable that women would make great
political leaders in that they will focus on the
priorities such as family and community resources,
health, education and the eradication of poverty.
However, although women are less recognized then
men in their political status, several countries are
involved in a quota system.
In reference to the illustration to the left; these are
the percentages of women that are within the
11. WOMEN & EDUCATION
Once again, although this is less prevalent in the developed countries, women make up the majority of
children that do not have access to education. Statistically, women make up two-thirds of the world’s
populate that is illiterate. Many women in other countries are kept out of school to assume the position of
taking part in the household chores. Also, sometimes the issue is that there may be only enough money to
send one child of the house to school, and in most instances, this would be the boys responsibility.
This is unfortunate due to the fact that girls who complete school are less likely to marry young, more likely
to have smaller families and exhibit better health outcomes.
• Feminism is ;
• the theory of the political, economic, and social
equality of the sexes
• organized activity on behalf of women's rights
The sociological theory that is relative to gender inequality is the
feminist theory. This theory analyzes the status of men and women in
society. Upon using this knowledge, it is with hope to better women's
Within this theory, there are other segments including the differences
between women within the races and ethnicities around the world.
The 4 main types of feminist theory are:
• Gender Differences
• Gender Inequality
• Gender Oppression
• Structural Oppression
Pertaining to Inequality for omen
15. FEMINIST THEORY
• Gender Differences breaks down and analyzes how women's location in, and experience of, social
situations differ from men's. An example of this is how women's values and femininity are different
from men’s and this is part of the reason men and women are viewed differently in the social world.
• Gender Inequality recognize that men and women are not only viewed differently, but they are also
treated unequally. An example is how women are refused a voice in the system. Also, the inequity of
the workplace proves this.
• Gender Oppression theory suggests that women are not only treated differently and unequally, but
they are actively oppressed, subordinated, and even abused by men. Power is the key variable in the
two main theories of gender oppression: psychoanalytic feminism and radical feminism.
• Structural oppression theories postulate that women's oppression and inequality are a result of
capitalism, patriarchy, and racism.
16. GENDER OPPRESSION THEORIES
• Psychoanalytic feminists use Freudian theory to explain the power relation between men and women
through the use of subconscious and unconscious, human emotions, and childhood development.
• Radical feminists argue that being a woman is a positive thing in and of itself, but that this is not
acknowledged in patriarchal societies where women are oppressed. Through their radical behaviour,
they aknowledge physical violence as being at the base of patriarchy.
17. HISTORICAL LANDMARKS FOR WOMEN
• In 1909, the Criminal Code was amended to criminalize the abduction of women.
• In 1918, Canadian women (except First Nations women) obtained the right to vote in federal elections
• In 1925 the federal divorce law was changed to allow a woman to divorce her husband on the same
grounds that a man could divorce his wife
• In 1928, Canada's Olympic Team included women for the first time
• In 1943, there was a massive influx of women into the paid labour force, taking over many traditionally
male jobs while men were away at war
• In 1951 Ontario enacted Canada's first equal pay legislation. Other provinces followed suit between
1952 and 1975
• In 1967, women student protesters succeeded at integrating women into the University of Toronto's
• In 1975, the federal government amended 11 laws in keeping with equality for women, including
providing equal rights for women and men in public service
• In 1999, the Supreme Court ruled that job standards and tests cannot be solely based on capabilities
that would favour men
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• Edmonds, M. (2014). Gender and Sexuality. Discovery. Retrieved from http://www.discovery.com/tv-
• Feminism Today. (2008). Modern feminism: an evaluation. Retrieved from http://www.freewebs.com
• Gender Discrimination in Canada. (2014). National Association of Japanese Canadians. Retrieved from
• Morris, M. (2013). Some facts and dates in Canadian women's history of the 20th century. Canadian
Research Institute for the Advancement of Women. Retrieved from http://criaw-icref.ca/millenium
• Mulholland, A. (2013). Gender equality index. CTV News. Retrieved from http://www.ctvnews.ca