Gender Equality


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Gender Equality

  2. 2. DEFINITION OF GENDER EQUALITY • Gender equality is the measurable equal representation of women and men. Gender equality does not imply that women and men are the same, but that they have equal value and should be accorded equal treatment. • The United Nations regards gender equality as a human right.
  3. 3. HISTORY OF GENDER INEQUALITY Throughout history, women have battled with discrimination. This was a burden both inside as well as outside the home. Women did not have the legal rights that they do today. In the past, women were commonly believed to have smaller brains than men. Women were only viewed as useful in the household and to take part in chores such as cooking and cleaning. Women’s perspective was not of any value and they were not allowed to vote
  4. 4. BARRIERS OF INEQUALITY • Professional Obstacles • Violence • Feticide and Infanticide • Feminization of Poverty • Access to Healthcare • Political Participation • Education Attainment Around the world Today
  5. 5. GENDER PROFESSIONALISM & INEQUITY For decades women have fought to protect their right to be equals to men within the workplace. Even with all the landmarks these women have made, they still only earn 77 cents to every dollar to their male coworkers. This includes in the same position with the same experience.
  6. 6. VIOLENCE Statistics show that one in every three females are likely "to be beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused in her lifetime“. This includes in both the developing as well as the developed world. Violence against women in the form of rape, spousal abuse, child abuse or spousal killing is routine behavior. This map shows the common abuse of women throughout the world and to what levels.
  7. 7. FEMALE FETICIDE & INFANTICIDE Feticide and infanticide are the act of aborting a fetus or an infant. This is increasingly more popular in countries such as India and China. The reason behind this has to do with the fact that women are less valuable than men in these countries. It is apparent that in some countries the gender ratio is skewed. In 2001 the gender ratio in India was 927 females to 1000 males. This entirely results in gender inequality. And the worlds “missing women”
  8. 8. FEMINIZATION OF POVERTY More than 1.5 billion people in the world live on less than one dollar a day, and the majority of those people are women. The United Nations often states that women do two-thirds of the world's work, receive 10 percent of the world's income and own 1 percent of the means of production. Also, many women can not apply for loans which often leads to poverty and them not being able to support their families. Many female entrepreneurs have been foiled and left to dwell in poverty because of restricted access to basic legal rights.
  9. 9. ACCESS TO HEALTHCARE Many women in developing countries don’t receive the necessary healthcare. Many female entrepreneurs have been foiled and left to dwell in poverty because of restricted access to basic legal rights. Statistics show that this is more than 500,000 deaths every year, many of which could have been prevented if the woman had been allowed to receive the proper healthcare. This however is less common in developed countries such as Canada, and the United States.
  10. 10. POLITICAL PARTICIPATION Despite women taking part of 50% of the world’s population, research has proved that they only take up approximately 15.6% of political seats. It is debateable that women would make great political leaders in that they will focus on the priorities such as family and community resources, health, education and the eradication of poverty. However, although women are less recognized then men in their political status, several countries are involved in a quota system. In reference to the illustration to the left; these are the percentages of women that are within the parliament.
  11. 11. WOMEN & EDUCATION Once again, although this is less prevalent in the developed countries, women make up the majority of children that do not have access to education. Statistically, women make up two-thirds of the world’s populate that is illiterate. Many women in other countries are kept out of school to assume the position of taking part in the household chores. Also, sometimes the issue is that there may be only enough money to send one child of the house to school, and in most instances, this would be the boys responsibility. This is unfortunate due to the fact that girls who complete school are less likely to marry young, more likely to have smaller families and exhibit better health outcomes.
  12. 12. Watch this youtube video on gender equality
  13. 13. FEMINISM • Feminism is ; • the theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes • organized activity on behalf of women's rights and interests
  14. 14. SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY The sociological theory that is relative to gender inequality is the feminist theory. This theory analyzes the status of men and women in society. Upon using this knowledge, it is with hope to better women's lives. Within this theory, there are other segments including the differences between women within the races and ethnicities around the world. The 4 main types of feminist theory are: • Gender Differences • Gender Inequality • Gender Oppression • Structural Oppression Pertaining to Inequality for omen
  15. 15. FEMINIST THEORY • Gender Differences breaks down and analyzes how women's location in, and experience of, social situations differ from men's. An example of this is how women's values and femininity are different from men’s and this is part of the reason men and women are viewed differently in the social world. • Gender Inequality recognize that men and women are not only viewed differently, but they are also treated unequally. An example is how women are refused a voice in the system. Also, the inequity of the workplace proves this. • Gender Oppression theory suggests that women are not only treated differently and unequally, but they are actively oppressed, subordinated, and even abused by men. Power is the key variable in the two main theories of gender oppression: psychoanalytic feminism and radical feminism. • Structural oppression theories postulate that women's oppression and inequality are a result of capitalism, patriarchy, and racism.
  16. 16. GENDER OPPRESSION THEORIES • Psychoanalytic feminists use Freudian theory to explain the power relation between men and women through the use of subconscious and unconscious, human emotions, and childhood development. • Radical feminists argue that being a woman is a positive thing in and of itself, but that this is not acknowledged in patriarchal societies where women are oppressed. Through their radical behaviour, they aknowledge physical violence as being at the base of patriarchy.
  17. 17. HISTORICAL LANDMARKS FOR WOMEN • In 1909, the Criminal Code was amended to criminalize the abduction of women. • In 1918, Canadian women (except First Nations women) obtained the right to vote in federal elections • In 1925 the federal divorce law was changed to allow a woman to divorce her husband on the same grounds that a man could divorce his wife • In 1928, Canada's Olympic Team included women for the first time • In 1943, there was a massive influx of women into the paid labour force, taking over many traditionally male jobs while men were away at war • In 1951 Ontario enacted Canada's first equal pay legislation. Other provinces followed suit between 1952 and 1975 • In 1967, women student protesters succeeded at integrating women into the University of Toronto's Hart House • In 1975, the federal government amended 11 laws in keeping with equality for women, including providing equal rights for women and men in public service • In 1999, the Supreme Court ruled that job standards and tests cannot be solely based on capabilities that would favour men
  18. 18. REFERENCES • Crossman, A. (2014). Feminist Theory. About Sociology. Retrieved from /od/Sociological-Theory/a/Feminist-Theory.htm • Edmonds, M. (2014). Gender and Sexuality. Discovery. Retrieved from shows/curiosity/topics/examples-gender-inequality-around-world.htm • Feminism Today. (2008). Modern feminism: an evaluation. Retrieved from /feminism-evaluated/ • Gender Discrimination in Canada. (2014). National Association of Japanese Canadians. Retrieved from • Morris, M. (2013). Some facts and dates in Canadian women's history of the 20th century. Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women. Retrieved from • Mulholland, A. (2013). Gender equality index. CTV News. Retrieved from canada/gender-equality-index-canada-edges-up-to-20th-still-far-off-all-time-high-1.1513022