Look at handout for what we talked about last night. You can also mention this way (it will be good to mention the “Health Sciences” branch, but I think the simplest method of access is the one we discussed last night. Maybe something like, “As I hope you are well aware, there is a website for the health sciences library, which can be accessed from the Library homepage under “Branches”. On this website, you can also access Cochrane via the “other point of care tools” link.”
Searching the CochraneDatabase of Systematic Reviews ALYSSA GREEN, MLIS UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY HEALTH SCIENCES LIBRARY JANUARY 5, 2012
Agenda Overview Goals Introduction to systematic reviews Systematic review sources Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Scenario PICO Basic search / Results Boolean logic / Special characters Advanced search / Results My Projects Conclusion and questions
Overview Scope of presentation Information literacy concept Systematic reviews Information literacy skill Searching online medical database International Medical Graduates (IMGs) Trained outside Canada and US Must complete additional training Offered at University of Calgary Difficulty with Canadian medical culture Evidence-based medicine Literature searching
Goals1. Understand how systematic reviews can answer clinical questions2. Learn strategies for formulating answerable questions3. Learn how to use Boolean logic to create queries4. Learn to use the basic and advanced search in the Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews
Systematic Reviews Key component of evidence-based medicine (EBM) Help healthcare team members make decisions Studies that synthesize multiple primary studies Limit errors and bias by following guidelines Rules for conducting literature searches Clearly defined selection criteria
Value of Systematic Reviews Keep clinicians up-to-date Provide guidelines for best practices Are succinct, accurate summaries of results Show whether findings are consistent Save clinicians time and effort Improve standards and safety
Systematic Review Sources Medline/PubMed Limit searches to systematic reviews only Clinical Evidence Systematic review source from BMJ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) Cochrane reviews considered very thorough Access provided through OvidSP Other online journals and databases
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Contains all Cochrane Reviews and Protocols Very thorough and reliable Cochrane Reviews Focus on answering questions Can antibiotics help in alleviating the symptoms of a sore throat? Created by the Cochrane Review Group and peer-reviewed Focus on effects of interventions for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation Assess diagnostic tests for specific populations/conditions Updated regularly
Accessing the CDSR Multiple ways to access the CDSR Through Library home page Search “Cochrane” under Research Databases Through Health Sciences Library Page Under “other point of care tools” Subscription resource Library pays for access Access restricted to students and faculty Can use from home or on campus
Scenario Use a systematic review to find answers Glenda, a 27 year old patient, is worried about getting sick before her upcoming exams. She wants to know if taking vitamin C will lower her chances of getting a cold.
PICO Use PICO to formulate research questions Break scenarios into keywords and components PICO KeywordP = Patient orProblem ColdI = Intervention, therapy, or Vitamin CtreatmentC = Comparison (ex. placebo, Nonethe gold standard)
Research Question PICO research question For the common cold (P), how does Vitamin C (I) compared to no treatment (C) impact prevention (O)? Use a Cochrane Review to answer this question Further simplify the question Does vitamin C prevent colds?
Basic Search Useful for simple searches Can search a complete topic or question
Basic Search- Results Basic search browses full-text of each review Results ranked by relevancy 859 results Results don’t include all terms Misses synonyms Advance search is more precise
BooleanOperators Used to combine words and phrases AND links search terms together vitamin C AND cold OR searches for one term or the other Prevention OR prophylaxis NOT excludes the term from search results Cold NOT influenza Brackets- ( ) links concepts together (cold OR coryza) AND (prevention OR prophylaxis)
Special Characters Truncation- * truncates words to find variations Prevent* picks up prevent, prevents, prevention, etc. Wildcards wom?n retrieves women, woman Quotations- “ ” searches phrases, i.e. “vitamin c” Next vitamin NEXT C Near cold NEAR prevention
Sample Search (“ascorbic acid” OR “vitamin c”) AND (prevent* OR prophylaxis) AND (cold OR coryza)
Advanced Search Retrieves narrow, targeted results More flexible and precise than basic search
Advanced Search- Results 12 results Boolean operators tell database to return all search terms Narrowed results while broadened search terms Filter, sort, or view different results
Transferable Skills Can use Boolean operators with numerous resources OvidSP Databases OvidSP’s evidence-based medicine reviews Online evidence-based medicine resources General medical databases Non-medical databases University of Calgary Library Catalogue through Summon Toolbar
Conclusion Systematic reviews are key to evidence-based medicine Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews is an important resource PICO helps formulate research questions Basic Search for simple queries Boolean Logic and special characters allow for detailed searching Advanced Search for refined searches “My Projects” saves reviews, search strings, and other information
References1. The Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada. (2006). A Faculty Development Program for Teachers of International Medical Graduates. Ottawa, ON: Steinert, Y., & Walsh, A.2. Sackett, D.L., Rosenberg, W.M.C., Gray, J.A.M., Haynes, R.B.,& Richardson, W.S.(1996). Evidence based medicine:What it is and what it isnt.British Medical Journal,312:(3), 71-72.3. Cook, J.D., Mulrow, C.D, & Haynes, R.B., (1997). Systematic Reviews: Synthesis of Best Evidence for Clinical Reviews. Annals of Internal Medicine, 126(5), 376- 380.4. Mulrow, C.D. (1994). Systematic reviews: Rationale for systematic reviews. British Medical Journal, 309.5. Delany, A., Bagshaw, S., Ferland, A., Laupland, K., Manns, B., &Doig, C. (2007). The quality of reports of critical care meta-analyses in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: An independent appraisal. Critical Care Medicine, 35(2), 589-594.6. Higgins, J.P.T., & Green, S. (eds.). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Retrieved from http://www.cochrane-handbook.org/. H7. Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine: Toronto. (2012). Formulating Answerable Clinical Questions (Page 2). Retrieved from http://ktclearinghouse.ca/cebm/practise/formulate/tips2.