Esd getting nature back complete


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Esd getting nature back complete

  1. 1. SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING & DESIGN Center for Modern Architecture Studies in Southeast Asia (MASSA) Bachelor of Science (Honours) Architecture ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABLE DESIGN [ARC 1413] Project 2: Nature & Us Tutor: Ms. Suja Group members: Toh Chee Cheng 0311122 Yap Zhi Jun 0310738 Yap Zhong Lin 0310557
  2. 2. GETTING NATURE BACK Nature actually extracted from culture. Back in the west,the nature can actually be traced back to a debate that brewed between political philosophers in the 17th and 18th centuries. About 300 years ago, the Native people in American tried to figure out how human acted in the “state of nature”. They brought into the idea that nature wasseparatedfromhumans. The empire building, morality and science separated us from animals, insects and gentleman savages. In the mid of 19th century, Henry David Thoreau took up this idea and tried to embrace goodness by moving to areas far from the cities. He believe that people could not get backto nature if they do not believe that they are part of nature. Human have the power to change the Earth’s environment forever. Sustainable development depends to this issues. Peter Ward believe that human need to develop geoengineering technologies that will take complete control of nature to scrubcarbon out of the air, clean polluted waters,enhance the productivity of farms, and more. Civilization and science can rescue nature, just as Hobbes’ social contract could rescue human nature from greed and brutishness. Belief that humans have somehow stepped outside nature. The problem is that humans are,in fact,part of nature. We are animals who live in burrows and hives like bears and bees. We leave our poop and garbage everywhere just like raccoons do. Sure we’ve invented some elaborate philosophies and ideologies to explain hives and poop to ourselves, but that doesn’t mean we’re not part of nature. That’spart of the natural carbon cycle, in which the environment slowly cycles between hot and carbon-rich followed by whether we preserve the environment with enormous, futuristic climate-control machines or by leaving the cities for tribal life, we are doing natural things on a natural world that is in a natural state. There is no nature to return to. We are already here. According to data from the United Nations, Malaysia's deforestation rate is accelerating faster than that of any other tropical country in the world. Analysis of figures from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) shows that Malaysia's annual deforestation rate jumped almost 86 percent between the 1990-2000 period and 2000-2005. In total, Malaysia lost an average of 140,200 hectares which is 0.65 percent of its forest area per year since 2000. Malaysia still has large areas of rainforest, but some estimates suggest that it could reduce to 25% coverage by 2020. Deforestation in Taman Negara has been caused by clear felling to plant rubber plantations; population growth and urbanization; clear felling to plant palm oil; industrial and recreational developments; to sell timber for furniture. There are many negative impacts of the human interference in rainforests and are harmful and certain possible impacts of it. On the other hand, building new roads divide up parts of the Taman Negara rainforest and can cut off connections betweendifferent biotic and abiotic systems. As deforestation occurred increasingly, the rate of photosynthesis in Taman Negara reduced.Thus, releasing more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and contributing to the greenhouse effect. Land clearance for farming, transportation and mining can lead to deforestation. While we appreciate nature during the tour in Taman Negara, many parts of the rainforest have already being deforested. On this particular trip, we stumbled upon a few ‘mobile’ logging camps. They are found within the park’s boundaries and are probably the doing of locals who live close by. It seems that the trees are taken down, processed and dragged out to build huts, traded and sold in the market. It was a pitiful sight. However,it must be remembered that any logging is going to have some negative impacts. Any logging will affect animals and also cutting one tree may inadvertently knock down other trees.Also the removal of hard woods can neverbeen sustainable. They can take hundreds of years to reach maturity. Hence, it’s impossible to replace. However, Malaysia government should have understood the importance of rainforests and try to protect. Some of the methods that can be implemented are urban forestry; increasing the number of National Parks and protected land; iincreasing ecotourism which gives the forest economic value. Deforestation at Taman Negara
  3. 3. Flash floods become more common after deforestation because there is less interception and less root uptake and transpiration. As such rainwater reaches the ground quick, saturating it and causing surface run-off and potential flooding. We are making the soil less stable by removing treesand vegetation. According to report from Taman Negara,the best time to visit the park will be between March and September which is during the dry season. The park may be closed at the height of the monsoon seasonfrom the beginning of November to the end of December, when the rivers are in flood. The flooding issues had continuously happened throughout the year in Taman Negara. This may lead to several issues including; loss of habitat, changes in the hydrological cycle, increased water erosion and removal of producers. However, rainforests are an excellent natural measure to reduce flooding. There is leaf cover in rainforests all year so interception continually happens, extending rivers lag time. All vegetation uptakes water and transpire it. The importance of root systems of trees and shrubs are to hold the very thin soil of rainforest in place. If trees are removed then both erosion of topsoil and landslides are more likely to occur. Moreover,source of nutrients to humus layer in soil will also affect the nitrogen cycle of biodiversity in Taman Negara. The nitrogen cycle is the recycling of nitrogen through the ground and atmosphere. Conversion of nitrogen is extremely important. 78% of our atmosphere, in its gaseous state is nitrogen which it’s not useful to plants. Plants absorb nitrogen through their roots. Nitrogen in the atmosphere is converted to ammonia in the soil through the process of nitrogen fixation. Bacteria in the soil can then convert the ammonia through the process of nitrification into nitrates which can be absorbed by plants. Nitrogen that already exists in plants and animals is recycled by decomposers (mainly fungi and bacteria). The recycling of nitrogen in the ground stops and the soil will become less fertile if deforestation takes place. In addition, the topsoil in rainforests is very thin and relies on the nutrients provided by rotting plants and animals. Because of the rainforests climate, there is a constant supply of leaf litter. Flash floods also caused problems and changes in rivers and drainage basins in Taman Negara. To sums up, less interception caused by increasing floods will lead to less transpiration from vegetation meaning that there will be less precipitation. Less precipitation will cause the discharge and velocity of rivers to decrease. Other than that, floods eventually increased pollution because water is no longer being filtered by vegetation and topsoil. For instance, there are all sorts of rubbish littered in the river such as cans and plastics bottles during the ride to Orang Asli Village. Wonder where all the rubbish flows? However, Malaysian government should pay more attention on this issue and try to implement solutions. Sustainable development is crucial if we are to maintain river in Taman Negara and the ecosystem services they provide that are essential for the biodiversity in the rainforest. These include provisioning services, related to the supplies of food and other products; regulatory services,relatedto naturalprocessessuchaswaterpurification and flood control; and cultural services,related to recreational, spiritual and other non-material benefits that people derive from nature. The flood of the rivers had affected the citizen in Jerantut and other town. In Kuantan, several roads have been flooded following heavy rains which lashed the state capital for more than five hours. The drainage system also could not cope with the unusually heavy rains. Residents said the floods in the town were the worst they had seen in the last 10 years. During the year 1971, Malaysian National Electricity Board had proposed to build a dam on the Sungei Tembeling. The dam was expected to generate 110 megawatt of electricity and provide some flood control. Since then the rivers canalised and drains improved to alleviate flooding in both urban and rural areas. Urban forestry such as street tree planting may also helped reduced flood in the rural areas. Along the way from Woodland Resort to River Flood The Nutrition Cycle
  4. 4. the rainforest, there are quite a number of treesplanted. Thus, the villagers who are living close by grow traditional local crops and become more self-sufficient. Utilizing natural processes and providing opportunities for nature as part of the infrastructure development process. The designers may include facilities or shelters or accommodation using renewable energy in Taman Negara. Make use the water in the river to generate electricity not just eco-friendly and low-cost but also help to prevent flood. Balancing the sustainable functioning of ecosystems with the demand for the development and use is necessary. Deforestation also causes a lot of negative impact to the nature, community and human. One of the biggest impact is causing extinction of flora and fauna. Flora and fauna; we can't live without them. The flora of the earth produce the oxygen that is breathed by the fauna and in turn, the fauna exhale the carbon dioxide that the flora need to live. One cannot live without the other, and humans cannot live without either; hence their importance. To overcome the problem of extinction of flora and fauna, rainforests which are very dense, warm, wet forests should be protected. Today rainforests cover about 6% of the Earth’s land surface. Rainforests contain the most productive and the most complex ecosystems on earth. Taman Negara, Jerantut, is an example of protected rainforest with flora and fauna species estimated at 10,000 plants, 150,000 insects, 25,000 invertebrates, 675 birds, 270 reptiles, 250 freshwater fish and 200 mammals. Some of the flora and fauna found in Taman Negara are rare or indigenous to this country. To avoid scaring off wildlife and conserves energy, everything used in Taman Negara is biodegradable and all the wooden chalet interiors are made of natural produce. Rainforest are abundant with many species of vegetation. Some vegetation species contribute to our health needs. Drugs obtained from rainforest plants are used to treat a number of diseases, such as cancer, malaria, heart disease, bronchitis, dysentery and tuberculosis. In Taman Negara, Jerantut, there are some species of plants that can use as medicine. For example, Costus Speciosus , the sap can be used to treat asthma, Blechnum Orientable the sap can treat fever and Nepenthes Gracilis, fluid in pitcher used to treat skin disease. Because of deforestation, some animals are endangered. Their living area are smaller and it is hard to find food. They are also have trouble on finding mates, so their numbers are becoming smaller. In Taman Negara there are few numbers of endangered animals are protected from deforestation or over-hunting. For example, the Malayan Tapir has a special black and white pattern which help them to hide from enemy. They are good swimmers, and live in forests where there is water. Malayan tapir eat grass and nuts, water plants, and fruits. They put food in their mouths using their noses, just like an elephant. Besides, another endangered animal is Chevrotains also call as ‘Mouse Deer’, even though they are not really deer.They weight from 9 to 13 pounds, and cangrow up to 24 inches in length. Their fur is mostly brown, with white underparts. They also have a pointed snout and large eyes,and males have curved tusks. They eat fruit and berries. Costus Speciosus Belchnum Orientable Nepenthes Gracilis
  5. 5. Also, rainforest bring many benefits to the nature, community and human. Rainforests stabilize the world’s climate by absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Rainforests also help maintain the water cycle. Through evapo-transpiration, plants release water into the atmosphere, important for cloud formation. Not only that, rainforests are very efficient at recycling nutrients which become stored within trees and plants rather than in the soil. The tree roots bind the soil together whilst the canopy protects the soil from the heavy rainforest rains. Protecting forests for the future is extremely important because this is not only benefits human but also all species, environment and community. Therefore, maintaining the remained forests from deforestation must be done to save our life. In order to resolve the problems stated above,an area of 4,343 km² of forest has been protected to propagate the importance of nature, protect and preserve the indigenous flora and fauna. One of the famous protected rainforest around the world is Taman Negara. It has a reputation as the world’s oldest tropical rainforest, estimated 130 million years old. It was opened to public for ecotourism at the same time to help the economy of the country. This is known as ecotourism. Ecotourism is characterized by ecological and socio-cultural integrity, responsibility and sustainability. (Taman Negara,2014) Ecotourism is characterized by ecological and socio-cultural integrity, responsibility and sustainability (Cater, 3). For the most part, the success of this form of tourism in different locations depends on a variety of factors including the area’s political stability; the host governments and local communities commitment to ecotourism; the extent of its promotion by local governments and tour operators; the area’s image; ease of travel in the respective area; and product demand. However, there are advantages and disadvantages in opening protect rainforest for the public entrance. Eco tourism has to been correctly to obtain severaladvantages. It is more concerned with the environment and does encourage developers to build with more consideration for the natural environment, Such as building with sustainable resources so that more natural habitat is preserves. Eco tourism also provides income for the local inhabitants in an area. The local people can also generate revenue from showing tourists around a jungle, lake, savannah and etc. It is much better than killing elephants for their ivory or capturing gorillas to sell on the black market. Moreover, sowing people a rainforests rather than logging the forests is a good compromise if the forest is preserves. People get to reveal the beauty of nature through ecotourism by experiencing places of great natural significance as well as interact with local and indigenous people (Orang Asli). It will fostering better understanding of the issues on the ground and overcoming prejudice. Furthermore, Taman Negara Management should also make sure the tourists follow the rules and regulations in Taman Negara in order to maintain the biodiversity in Tropical Rainforest. They should bring lesser tourists in a trip so that it can cut down the noises produced that will chase large mammals away from the noisier area. By letting this happen, it will interrupt the biodiversity of that particular area. For example, the migration of hoof stock take refuge deeper in the forest so the tigers will follow, effectively leaving sections of the park quiet and perhaps practically devoid of wildlife. At Malayan Tapir Chevrotains
  6. 6. the present time, Malaysia's handling of their Taman Negara and wildlife shows a growing awareness to prevent issues of this type ever developing. The related department should also enforcing the law to ensure tourists do not litter in the forest destroying beautifulness of nature. In the nutshell, today deforestation especially in the tropics, decimates plant and animal life. . Tropical rainforest contain about 7% of land surface but over half of the plant and animal species on the planet. If tropical rainforest deforestation continues at the current rate, it is estimated that by the first part of the 21st century about half of the remaining rainforest will be lost along with about 5 to 10% of all the species on the planet. Deforestation can be controlled by protecting rainforest that are still available. Awareness can be created when ecotourism occur in protected rainforest. To protect and preserve the nature beauty of rainforest, attitude and behavior of tourists are also important. Global warming is not just about temperature. Global warming directly affects humans because everything about our life is tied to the climate such as food production, water supplies, health and well-being. It's just that the people must step forward. The safe keeping of our precious planet lies with each and every member of its human population. We are the ones accountable for our actions eventhough it is ourselves we are accountable too.
  7. 7. Bibliography Deforestation will accelerate extinction of animals, mankind and environment?. (n.d.). Reaching The Sky. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from will-accelerate-extinction-of-animals-mankind-and-environment/ ECOTOURISM. (n.d.). 3. ECOTOURISM. Retrieved May 24, 2014, from Eric, A., Dominick, B., James, B., Sarah, C., & Max, D. (n.d.). IGCSE and GCSE Weather, Climate and Ecosystems. Retrieved May 20, 2014, from ems Rainforest Concern Guided Tour. (n.d.). Rainforest Concern Guided Tour. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from Rainforest Concern. (n.d.). - Why are rainforests important?. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from Rhett A. Butler. (2006, March 16). Malaysia to phase out Borneo logging in parts of Sabah state. Mongabay.Retrieved May 29, 2014, from Pidwirny, M. (2006). "The Nitrogen Cycle". Fundamentals of Physical Geography,2nd Edition.Date Viewed. The Impact of Ecotourismon Costa Rica . (2014,June 23). Retrieved from USA Today. (2014,June 17). Retrieved from Positive & Negative Effects of Ecotourism: