Hello & welcome to our presentation on General & Multidisciplinary Science & TechnologyInformation Resources. As may already know, there is anoverwhelming amount of science and technology information out there. It is important thatwe librarians stay abreast of the best ways to find this information. We will be talking in this presentation about some goodresources for general and multidisciplinary science and technology information.
What all do the general science & technology resources cover? First we should understand the difference between science and technology. Science is the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake, while technology is the application of knowledge to create products that solve problems. Both science and technology are broad terms that cover many different disciplines.General Science refers to study of basic, or introductory, materials for the major sciences. Think of your middle school science class, which combined biology, chemistry, and geology. At the college level, general science covers those things that unite the sciences, such as their methodologies. The science resources we present here are resources for general science.General Biology and Natural History refers to the basics of biology and natural history. Biology is the study of living organisms; natural history covers the development of living organisms or natural processes. Biology and Natural History have sub-disciplines, such as cellular biology or zoology. A general biology course on the college level would cover the principles of biology rather than the specifics of cellular biology. General Technology and Inventions refers to the basic and introductory materials for technology and engineering. We will talk a bit about patents in this section of our presentation. The History and Philosophy of Science & Technology covers just what it sounds like. History means the historical background of science and technology. Who was this scientist? What did she invent? What’s the timeline of female engineers? Philosophy covers the thought behind science. Hot topics in science philosophy include bioethics. Multidisciplinary sources fit in quite well with general sources because they are sources that are used by many disciplines. We will cover the difference between multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary later in this presentation.
There are different types of resources available to us. These include ready reference resources, journals, bibliographic databases, and the materials created by major associations. There are different resources available to each area of study. Since we are dealing with general and multidisciplinary resources, many of them will overlap. Ready reference resources provide quick, general information. Just like the ready reference in a general library includes dictionaries and encyclopedias, so does science and technology ready reference. Journals, to put it simply, collect research. There are different types of journals. These include primary/archival, technical, trade, translation, popular science, and review. Primary journals are also called archival journals. They are also often called “scholarly” journals. They cover the original research in science and technology. These types of journals make up most of the science collections at academic or research libraries. Articles in primary journals are peer-reviewed.Technical journals articles cover applications of techniques to technical practice. They are of interest to the technical community, especially industry technicians. Trade journal articles cover information useful for a particular trade. These include patents, material prices, and market trends. Translation journals were originally published in another language, but are now available in English. Popular science journal articles are meant for everyone and are written to appeal to people interested in “everyday science” (Bobick & Berard 18). Reviews provide overviews, synthesis, and analysis of subjects since they were most recently covered in the relevant literature. They are considered one of the most important secondary scientific literature resources.Bibliographic databases are organized collections of references to published works. You’ve probably used them in your undergraduate or graduate research. There are different bibliographic databases for different subject matter, just as there are different journals devoted to different areas.Major associations promote scientific thought and research. They create materials that are also useful resources. The associations can also be useful themselves, too, for information, professional development, and other resources.
Links to these and other ready reference sources will take you to the WorldCat page for those resources. You can change the zip code in the search boxes to find a version closer to your home location. In some cases, you may want to conduct your own search for encyclopedias to find where particular volumes are located. Pages 219 – 222 of the Bobick and Berard text are devoted to General Science resources.
These links will take you to LSU Libraries descriptions and links, DIALOG blue sheets, or websites for these databases. These general science resources can be used for other subjects.
Before giving you a list of general science journals, I’d like to talk a bit about the cost issue. The cost of all journals is on the rise. Humanities, social sciences, science and technology: we’re all facing the same problem of cost. Science and technology journals are especially impacted by this increase. According to the article by Bosch, Henderson, and Klusendorf, the average price for titles in 2011 was $1,333 for General Science print journal $892 for General Science online journals. That’s a big piece of your collections budget!
In the face of these high costs, how do librarians determine what journals they should purchase? One way is to find out which ones their researchers will need. One way to do find this out is to see how the journals are ranked – to see which ones are cited more often. Here is a ranking of the top 12 “multidisciplinary” journals as ranked by as ranked by SciImago, powered by Scopus. Many journals referred to as “multidisciplinary” can be considered general science journals. Another way to determine which journals have the most “impact factor” is through ISI Web of Knowledge’s Journal Citation Reports. We’ll share an example of this with you later in the presentation. Remember these rankings when we get to the top multidisciplinary journals as determined by JCR.
General Science journals show up in the LSU Special Collections, too. Here is an explanation of some of the general science materials available there. These would be useful for both general science research as well as historical research.
General Technology and Inventions have their own set of ready reference resources. Pages 227-230 of the Bobick and Berard text are devoted to General Technology and Invention resources. These links work the same as those under General Science.
An important part of general technology and invention resources are those dealing with patents. Here are some places to find out about patents. Did you know Michael Jackson held a patent for his “Smooth Criminal” leaning shoes? You can find it and other patents on the USPTO website. Search for patent number 5255452.
Now we come to resources for the history and philosophy of science and technology. Bobick and Berard devote pages 235-238 to resources for this subject. These links work the same as those under General Science.
Biographies are an important source of historical information about science and technology. Here are some encyclopedias and other ready resources for bibliographies of people in science and technology. These can be great resources for information about female and minority figures in science and technology as well as track developments.
Remember earlier when I talked about ranking resources by impact factor? Here is what a page in Journal Citation Reports of history and philosophy of science and technology journals looks like when ranked by impact.
These are the top five journals as determined by the JCR’s impact factor. These links will take you to their records.
Here are some recommended databases for finding information about the history and philosophy of science and technology. Click on the links to view the resources.
Before we talk about multidisciplinary resources, let’s discuss the difference between multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary. Here is the OED’s definition of multidisciplinary.
And here is the OED’s definition of interdisciplinary.
These are the top multidisciplinary resources as determined by JCR. Compare them to the ones ranked by Scimago on slide 7.
These are the top five multidisciplinary journals as determined by JCR’s impact factor. Links will take you to their websites.
Professional associations are an important part of general and multidisciplinary science.
Here are some of the important professional associations. Click on the links provided to visit their sites.
Where do Louisiana universities stand in their offerings of degrees in these disciplines?
These are some of the General and Multidisciplinary Science and Technology degrees offered by private universities in Louisiana.
These are some of the General and Multidisciplinary Science and Technology degrees offered by the Louisiana State University system.
These are some of the General and Multidisciplinary Science and Technology degrees offered by the Southern University system.
These are some of the General and Multidisciplinary Science and Technology degrees offered by the University of Louisiana system.
Thank you for your attention! I hope you found this presentation useful. If you have any questions or suggestions, please email Alyson Gamble at email@example.com
General & Multidisciplinary Science and Technology Resources
General andMultidisciplinaryScience and TechnologyInformation ResourcesAlyson Gamble & Vanessa VarinLIS 7202, Fall 2012, Louisiana State University School of Library & Information ScienceDr. Michelynn McKnightPresented September 5, 2012
General Science & Technology• Covered in this presentation: • General Science • General Biology and Natural History • General Technology and Inventions • History and Philosophy of Science and Technology • Multidisciplinary Sources• Science’s purpose is pursuit of knowledge for its own sake.• Technology’s purpose is to create products to solve problems.• Largest portion of scholarly publishing is in the sciences & technology
Types of Resources• Ready Reference • Provides quick, general information • Includes dictionaries, encyclopedias, directories, & handbooks• Journals • Collect research on theories and ideas • Types include primary/archival, technical, trade, translation, popular science, and review• Bibliographic Databases • Organized collection of references to published literature• Major Associations • Promote scientific thought & research
General Science:Ready Reference Resources• Dictionaries • Larousse Dictionary of Science & Technology • The New Penguin Dictionary of Science • Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations • Scientific Laws, Principles, and Theories: A Reference Guide• Encyclopedias • Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics • The Gale Encyclopedia of Science • Magic Universe: The Oxford Guide to Modern Science • McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology • The Nature of Science: An A-Z Guide to the Laws and Principles Governing Our Universe • U-X-L Encyclopedia of Science (juvenile audience) • Van Nostrand’s Scientific Encyclopedia• Handbooks • The Addison-Wesley Science Handbook • Handbook for Scientific & Technical Research • Rules of Thumb for Engineers and Scientists
General Science: Databases• Academic Search Complete• AccessScience• CSA Illustrata: Natural Sciences• General Science Abstracts• JSTOR • General Science includes 29 titles• Medline• National Library of the Environment• NTIS (National Technical Information Services)• Science Direct• Science & Technology Collection• Scopus• Web of Science (also called Science Citation Index or ISI)
General Science: Journals• Cost increase is an issue for all journals.• Science journals are on the rise, too: • Average price per title (Bosch, Henderson, and Klusendorf) • $1,333 for General Science print journal • $892 for General Science online journals
General Science Journals Scimago Journal & Country Rank
LSU Subject Guide to PublishedMaterials in the Special Collections :
General Technology &Inventions: Ready Reference• Encyclopedias • Encyclopedia of Technology & Applied Sciences • Encyclopedia of 20th-Century Technology • Magill’s Survey of Science: Applied Science Series • Scientific American’s Inventions and Discoveries: All the Milestones in Ingenuity-From the Discovery of Fire to the Invention of the Microwave Oven• Dictionaries • Academic Press Dictionary of Science & Technology • Chamber’s Dictionary of Science and Technology (formerly Larousse Dictionary of Science & Technology) • McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms• Handbooks & Tables • DeskRef • The Statistical Handbook on Technology
General Technology &Inventions: Patents• Canadian Intellectual Property Office• European Patent Office• German Patent & Trademark Office• Google Patents• Japan Patent Office• Patent & Trademark Depository Library Association• United States Patent & Trademark Office (USPTO)
History & Philosophy of Science &Technology: Ready Reference• Dictionaries • A Dictionary of the History of Science• Encyclopedias • An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology • Encyclopedia of the Scientific Revolution: From Copernicus to Newton • The History of Science in the United States: An Encyclopedia • Instruments of Science: A Historical Encyclopedia • The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science • Reader’s Guide to the History of Science • The Scientific Revolution: An Encyclopedia• Handbooks & Tables • Asimov’s Chronology of Science & Discovery • Philip’s Science & Technology: People, Dates, and Events • The Timetables of Science: A Chronology of the Most Important People and Events in the History of Science• Bibliographies • American Science and Technology: A Bicentennial Bibliography • The History of Science and Technology in the United States: A Critical and Selective Bibliography
History & Philosophy of Science& Technology: Ready Reference• Biographies • African Americans in Science: An Encyclopedia of People and Progress • American Men & Women of Science • American Women in Science, 1950 to Present: A Biographical Dictionary • Asimov’s Biographical Encyclopedia of Science & Technology • The Biographical Dictionary of Women in Science: Pioneering Lives from Ancient Times to Mid- 20th Century • Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists • Biographical Memoirs: National Academy of Sciences (journal) • Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society (Great Britain) (journal) • Blacks in Science and Medicine • Dictionary of Scientific Biography • Distinguished Asian Americans: A Biographical Dictionary (not all entries are about scientists, but many Asian American scientists’ biographies are featured) • Encyclopedia of World Scientists • International Encyclopedia of Women Scientists • Latinos in Science, Math, and Professions • Notable Black American Scientists • Notable Scientists: From 1900 to the Present • Notable Women Scientists • The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists, Pasts and Present
History & Philosophy of Science& Technology: Journals Journal Citation Reports
History & Philosophy of Science& Technology: Journals• Major journals determined by Journal and Citation Reports• Top five, as determined by impact factor 1. American Journal of Bioethics 2. Agriculture and Human Values 3. Social Studies of Science 4. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 5. Biology & Philosophy
History & Philosophy of Science& Technology: Databases• Applied Science & Technology Retrospective• Biosis• History of Science, Technology, and Medicine (HSTM)• ISI Web of Science• JSTOR • History of Science & Technology has 42 titles listed• Medline
Multidisciplinary Knowledge Oxford English Dictionary
Interdisciplinary Knowledge Oxford English Dictionary
Multi- versus Inter- Disciplinary • Multidisciplinary knowledge is associated with more than one discipline, while interdisciplinary is new knowledge that does not fit into traditional disciplinary boundaries. • “The interdisciplinarity of a field refers to the reliance of its scientists on the literature of other disciplines” (Jamali & Nichols 233). • “Users who consider themselves highly interdisciplinary are more likely to find e-articles by following citation links, value scientific monographs and conference proceedings more than others and textbooks less, and are more likely to be older than 36 (Tenopir, 2008)” (Jamali & Nichols 234). • “Interdisciplinary research has become much more commonplace in the late 20th and early 21st centuries as communication technologies have enabled researchers to extend their communication patterns internationally” (Bobick & Berard 9).
Multidisciplinary Sources:Journals• Major journals determined by Journal and Citation Reports• Top five, as determined by impact factor 1. Nature 2. Science 3. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 4. Nature Communications 5. Journal of the Royal Society Interface
The Role of Major ProfessionalAssociations• Publish Professional Journals • AAAS & Science Weekly, NYAS & The New York Academy of Sciences• Develop Professional Standards • Code of Ethics & Conduct of Research • National Academy of Engineering Research Process• Promote Higher Standards (Awards)• Lobby Educational Institutions for Minimum Standards
List of Major ProfessionalAssociations• American Association of the Advancement of Science (AAAS)• National Association of Science Writers (NASW)• United States National Academy of Sciences (PNAS)• The Association for Science Teacher Education (ASTE)• Association for Women in Science (AWIS)• Association of Science– Technology Centers (ASTC)• International Association of Science and Technology for Development (IASTD)• National Academy of Sciences (NAS)• The National Academy of Engineering (NAE)• Institute of Medicine (IOM)• The New York Academy of Sciences (NYAS)• Academy of Sciences [Russian Group] (AH)
Louisiana Universities• All schools require basic science classes as part of the core curriculum, meaning they will need general science resources to support this requirement.• Many of these universities also offer general science programs in preparation for teaching degrees.• General science, technology, history, and philosophy form the foundation for any science or technology program.• This presentation does not include Louisiana community colleges.
Louisiana Universities: Private• Centenary College of Louisiana • Our Lady of Holy Cross College • Biology (BS) • Biology (BS) • Neuroscience (BS) • Our Lady of the Lake College• Dillard University • Biology (BS) • Biology (BS) • Clinical Laboratory Sciences (BS)• Louisiana College • Tulane University • Biology (BS) • Interdisciplinary:• Loyola University New Orleans • Environmental studies & • Interdisciplinary: environmental science (BS) • Environmental • Neuroscience (BS, MS, PhD) Science, Biological Sciences • Interdisciplinary PhD in Aging (BS) Studies • Environmental • Special Interdisciplinary Studies, Humanities (BS) Programs leading to PhD • Environmental Studies, Social • Xavier University of Louisiana Science (BS) • Biology (BA/BS)
Louisiana Universities: LouisianaState University System• Louisiana State University and A&M College (Baton Rouge) • Interdisciplinary: • Coastal Environmental Science (BS) • Environmental Science (MS, PhD) • Human Ecology (MS, PhD) • Biological Sciences (BS, MS, PhD) • Interdisciplinary Engineering (MSES, PhD) • Master of Natural Sciences (MNS)• LSU Shreveport • Biological Science (BS)• LSU Alexandria • Biology (BS) • Associate of Science • Associate of Science in Clinical Laboratory Science• LSU Eunice (community college) • Associate of Science
Louisiana Universities:Southern University System• Southern University and A&M College (Baton Rouge) • Biology (BS, MS) • Urban Forestry (MS, PhD)• Southern University New Orleans • Biology (BA)• Southern University Shreveport (two-year campus) • Associate of Science, Biology
Louisiana Universities:University of Louisiana System• Grambling State University • Southeastern Louisiana • Biology (BS) University• Louisiana Tech University • Biological Sciences (BS) • Biological Science (BS/MS) • Biology (MS)• McNeese State University • University of Louisiana at • Biological Science (BS) Lafayette • Clinical Laboratory Science • Biology (BS, MS, PhD) (BS) • University of Louisiana at• Nicholls State University Monroe • Biology (BS) • Biology (BS, MS)• Northwestern State University • University of New Orleans • Clinical Laboratory Science • Biological Sciences (BS) (BS) • Biology (BS)
SourcesWorks CitedBosh, Stephen, Kittie Henderson, and Heather Klusendorf. “Periodicals Price Survey 2011: Under Pressure, Times are Changing.” Library Journal (May 1, 2011): 30-34.“Interdisciplinary.” Oxford English Dictionary Online. June 2012. Oxford University Press. http://www.oed.com/. Accessed 2 September 2012.Jamali, Hamid R. and David Nichols. “Interdisciplinarity and the information-seeking behavior of scientists.” Information Processing and Management 46 (2010): 233-243.“Multidisciplinary.” Oxford English Dictionary Online. June 2012. Oxford University Press. http://www.oed.com/. Accessed 2 September 2012.“Subject Guide to Published Materials.” LSU Libraries Special Collections, Louisiana State University Hill Memorial Library.http://www.lib.lsu.edu/special/cc/sg/sciences.pdf. Accessed 1 September 2012).Textbooks UtilizedBell, Suzanne S. Librarian’s Guide to Online Searching. 3rd ed. Santa Barbara: Libraries Unlimited, 2012.Bobick, James E. and G. Lynn Berard. Science and Technology Resources: A Guide for Information Professionals and Researchers. Santa Barbara: Libraries Unlimited, 2011.Impact factor screenshotsJournal Citation Reports. ISI Web of Knowledge, Thomson Reuters. http://wokinfo.com/products_tools/analytical/jcr/SCImago Journal and Country Rank. http://www.scimagojr.com/index.phpUniversity InformationWe found information about the programs offered at different universities from the university websites. These websites can be accessed viathe links in the presentation or handout.A list of the universities was found at http://epscor2.phys.lsu.edu/facDatabase/LaSMARTS/laUniv.html