E-estonia 2010


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E-estonia 2010

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  2. 2. Capital: Tallinn Area: 45,227 km2 Population: 1,340,000 Internet users: 74% Country Calling Code: 372 Currency: Eesti kroon (EEK) Currency rate: EUR 1 = EEK 15.65 2
  3. 3. CONTENTS E-SOCIETY E-STATE Introduction 5 e-Government and e-Parliament 12 The Whole Human Lifecycle and an e-Elections 13 e-Society 6 The e-Citizen’s Electronical ID Card 14 “Tiger Leap” 7 Digital Signature 15 e-Empowered Citizens 7 The X-road 15 E-EDUCATION Secure e- and Legal Environments 15 e-School 8 TECHNOLOGY AND University Via Internet 8 ACCESSIBILITY Broad-based IT-Education 8 Connections Abroad 16 E-SERVICES Connection and User Statistics 16 The State Portal eesti.ee 9 Mobile Signals and Wireless Internet 17 The e-Business Register and e-Land Register 9 Mobile Applications 17 The e-Tax Board and Income Declarations 9 EstWin 17 e-Healthcare 10 CONCLUSION 18 e-Police 10 e-Banking 11 e-Ticket 11 Nature Online 11 Historical Heritage 11 3
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  5. 5. During the last 20 years, Estonia has developed cyberattack, emerging unscathed by mounting E-SOCIETY a complete, well functioning, and secure e-state. For citizens of Estonia, e-services have a vigorous self-defence. become routine: e-elections, e-taxes, e-police, e-healthcare, e-banking, and e-school. The “e” Skype has become an international word prefix for services has almost become trite in recognized everywhere. Almost 10% of the sense that it is truly standard. Most Estonians international calling minutes throughout the would not even consider doing things the old- entire world are made using Skype. This free fashioned way by physically visiting an office. internet calling program was developed in The e-state gives people freedom – to spend Estonia. Skype’s development centre is located time in the forest, countryside, in our countless in Tallinn. Skype’s experience has been that bogs, or even in Tallinn’s famous Old Town in Estonia it is easy to develop innovative which rests beside the modern city. Almost any infrastructure, due to the presence of technological competence in an environment activity can be taken care of with a few clicks via favourable to IT development. the internet. These modern city office buildings are Were the internet to have a postal address, it would most likely Skype’s Chief Evangelist and General Manager increasingly used by IT companies which seek of the Tallinn office, Sten Tamkivi, is fond be here in Estonia. We have reason to be proud of our highly- an innovative, highly-educated, cost-effective of relating the simple equation of Skype’s developed telecommunications network. Estonia is a place workforce. One example of many: From its original success: “Four guys in a room for six you can take your laptop into the deepest forest and still hook development centre in Tallinn, Skype creates months and the result was one million users up to the internet. It is no accident that Skype was born here. a large part of the software used by its loyal two months after launch.” The strength of customer base of 500 million people. Skype — and perhaps the strength of Estonian Toomas Hendrik Ilves IT — is that its hallmark is simple efficiency. President of the Republic of Estonia Thanks to its small size, Estonia is an ideal place It is not burdened with layers of cumbersome for testing new solutions. The implementation management or formalities. “Before I came to Skype,” says Tamkivi, “I used to bid against a lot and feedback processes move very quickly. of Western European companies for jobs. They These words of Estonia’s President Toomas Many solutions engineered in Estonia have been would offer a three-layer project organization Hendrik Ilves characterize well the noteworthy later exported, including e-elections, e-school, with complicated reporting structures. We’d achievements of Estonia in its transition from a and m-parking (the “m” means “mobile”). put four guys in a room and get the job done.” Soviet society into one of Europe’s most modern It may also be of interest that Estonia is the only states. nation in the world which has survived a full-on 5
  6. 6. The Whole Human Lifecycle and an e-Society In Estonia, it is understood that the value of an IT solution is greater the more useful it is in everyday life. For this reason, the state has supported the development of e-solutions for every stage of an individual’s life. e-solutions are available for child subsidies, school applications, for ordering theatre tickets, seeking employ- ment, booking doctors’ appointments, and applying for pensions. In the works is a plan to enable marriage registrations via internet or, in less unhappier situations, divorces. The majority of forms and applications from state institutions are available in electronic form and may be submitted electronically. Citizens are not required to visit state institutions, freeing time which may be devoted to other pursuits. Estonians are so accustomed to e-services that they always first ask for the institution’s web address, instead of the telephone number. Only if it transpires that an Estonian can’t find an institution’s or business’ web service link or electronic registration system will he pick up the telephone. Every citizen is encouraged to offer proposals for new e-services or present questions via the e-participation portal, osale.ee. Thanks to this process, the state’s actions serve the actual needs of the citizens. 6
  7. 7. e-Empowered Citizens While the Tiger Leap program was to provide a broadbased computer education for students and teachers, the program Vaata Maailma (“Look at the World”) was targeted at the society as a whole who wished to develop along with the information society. The program continues to offer free computer and internet training courses throughout Estonia. Vaata Maailma’s goal was to reduce the digital gap and bring an active e-life to those who, because of their age or other reasons, might have otherwise remained behind. Thanks to the Vaata Maailma program, IT-savvy pensioners are not a rare sight in Estonia. Many actively handle their affairs via the internet. Initiated and supported by President Lennart “Tiger Leap“ Meri in 1996, the Tiger Leap program gave Estonia did not become an e-state by accident. Estonian IT a strong kickstart through the One of the most significant steps on this program’s ability to produce IT-savvy students road was the 1997 decision to bring people, from every Estonian school in one fell swoop. computers, and the e-world together at the This sparked the creation of IT jobs but also earliest age and begin the nationwide project created a demand for e-services. by equipping schools with the most modern The Tiger Leap program continues today, and computers and internet connections. Thanks to the education it provides is free for students and a program named Tiger Leap, computer skills teachers alike. spread quickly through society. www.tiigrihype.ee 7
  8. 8. E-EDUCATION and every high school graduate may retrieve them through the state portal eesti.ee, or may opt to receive the results via text message to e-School a mobile telephone. Upon completing high school, students may submit applications for One of the most widely used e-services is university admittance via the state’s internet- e-school, which serves families with school- based application system. The system unites age children. This service is useful to everyone: the higher-education databases with the students, teachers, and parents. Parents are able students’ exam results, thus greatly simplifying to register their children in school and monitor a the exchange of information between the user child’s academic performance. Teachers may plan and the university. lessons and enter information about subjects covered in class. Students are able to keep an www.sais.ee eye on lesson plans and class schedules. e-school enables the anticipation of problems, the source of which are often caused by lack Broad-based IT of information whether from the school or the Education home. With the help of e-school, families are A quickly-developing information society needs constantly informed concerning matters related specialists with broad-based knowledge and to their children and school. For the student it is practical experience concerning information also easier, since dependency on paper diaries system security. That’s why almost every is eliminated, and lesson plans and homework university in Estonia offers a higher education in may be accessed at any time. some aspect of IT. Some of Estonia’s IT-degrees are unique in the world – for example, a master’s www.ekool.eu degree in cyberdefence born at Tallinn Technical University and Tartu University. University Via Internet At the end of high school, all Estonian students www.tu.ee are required to take state exams. Exam results www.ttu.ee www.itcollege.ee are input directly into the information system, 8
  9. 9. Register and e-Land Both registers have received extensive international recognition, including honours at Register the European e-Government Awards 2009, the European Enterprise Awards, and others. E-SERVICES The basis for a strong economy is citizens actively engaged in business. An entrepreneur may form a company in Estonia through a The State Portal completely bureaucracy-free process directly The e-Tax Board and eesti.ee at his personal computer. The e-business portal’s record for the set-up and registration of Income Declarations E-services are not useful if the citizenry is Before the e-Tax Board, every taxpayer had to a company is 18 minutes. In most instances, it unaware of them, or if the services are difficult manually calculate his income. Now, the same would be impossible to even carry documents to locate. The state portal eesti.ee gathers all calculations are automatically made from from one official to another in 18 minutes. To the state’s e-services in one place. Through this information collected from employers. A citizen create a company via the internet requires portal, the citizen may enter the e-tax system, now must only enter the e-tax system using only an Estonian ID card, but the system also make application to universities, check his data his ID card or internet bank, log on, check the recognizes ID cards from Belgium, Portugal, in the land register, and much more. A citizen information automatically assembled, make Lithuania, and Finland, and work is currently may download, for example, a variety of official additions or changes (if necessary), and approve underway to enable increasing numbers of forms. Whether seeking a pension application the declaration. Not a single document must other nations’ citizens to electronically register or presenting a claim to the labour dispute be printed. And waiting in queues during office businesses in Estonia. commission, it’s all in one place. In addition, hours is completely eliminated—the e-Tax Board access to all e-services are provided via internet is open around the clock every day of the week. banking sites, which makes new services www rik ee/e-arireg ter www rik ee/e-ariregister w.rik.e w.rik.e regist r The e-tax system has proved to be Estonia’s available to all internet banking customers. most popular e-service: in 2010, over 92% of tax The portal also shows the citizen what declarations were filed via the internet. information the state has about him. In the The e-land register is an internet-based interest of security, the portal is not a single, large electronic land information system, which www.emta.ee database, but rather a secure channel to collect enables searches concerning real estate for a information from separate official databases nominal charge. during a single e-service session. Currently, the state portal uses approximately 60 databases www.rik.ee/land_register and offers 600 different services. The e-Business 9
  10. 10. e-Hea e-Healthcare Additionally, victims of crimes are not required to visit the police station. Crime reports may be Although i not possible to heal via the it’s submitted electronically and signed digitally. internet, life can be made much easier thanks to it. Estonia uses digital prescriptions which Eston are not printed on paper. This is doubly useful: prin a patient isn’t required to keep track of a paper isn prescription, and digital prescriptions cannot be prescription forged or im improperly used. Cyber Defence The e-patie system enables people to book, e-patient The idea for a NATO’s “The Cooperative Cyber change or c cancel appointments with physicians, Defence Centre of Excellence” (CCD COE) and include a feature to generate reminder includes originated in 2004 in Estonia. Thanks to Estonian messages s appointments are not forgotten. so developments in the IT sphere, Estonia was Also, the pa patient may view additions to his file designated as the centre’s home. The centre is a made by th physician, and doctors may access the collection of international experts and provides data and analysis about the patient made by other ana NATO member states throughout the world with physicians. the necessary expertise in the ever-changing field of cyberdefence. www.etervis.ee The centre also serves to provide expert training and consultation for partner nations and to research and develop solutions to manage e-Police risks and lessen dangers in the IT field. NATO cyberdefence centre is Estonia’s contribution to If you see a police car aglow from the light of its international cybersecurity, and thanks to this onboard computer, it’s not because the officers Estonia’s experience and expertise in the sector is are surfing the web. They’re actually working. shared with many other nations. The police have access to online databases (the Schengen Zone information system) to determine www.ccdcoe.org whether the individual they’ve stopped is wanted, or whether the car he’s driving is stolen. This enables the police to make operative decisions without exchanging information with a dispatcher. The only thing it makes complicated is the life of the lawbreaker. 10
  11. 11. e-Banking Nature Online Citizens accustomed to the e-state also demand It isn’t only state bureaus which are accessible via paperless solutions from the private sector. the web: nature is, as well. Web cameras placed One of the best examples of this is banking. at the feeding sites of wild animals eating or at The expression “going to the bank” has all nesting locations of birds are extremely popular. but disappeared from the Estonian language. In addition to bringing nature closer to city Instead, an Estonian tends to “log in” to his bank. dwellers, the cameras have helped apprehend For ten years now, Estonians have not been “nature hooligans” who enter the forest for the required to physically visit the bank. To most, it purpose of disturbing animals and birds. is not a question what time the bank opens or closes or where it’s located, since the internet www.looduskalender.ee bank is open 24 hours a day. Currently, 98% of banking transactions are conducted via the internet. With every bank account comes the option to use internet banking. Historical Heritage Internet banking is safe, since identification Estonia doesn’t limit the preservation of its is verified via an ID card or the aid of a mobile cultural heritage by simply digitally scanning telephone-ID system, both many times more newspapers. For years now, state museums have secure than the popular password card system, digitally registered their inventory. Also, church which Estonia still currently has in parallel use. books dating to the 18th century have been digitized so that everyone with an interest may trace his genealogy up to the Middle Ages. State e-Ticket archive materials are also available via the web, Only tourists buy paper tickets on Estonia’s which means that serious investigative work capital city’s public transportation system. Locals doesn’t require a trip to the capital. Thanks to buy their bus tickets via the internet and their the internet, cultural heritage is also accessible virtual ticket is registered in their personal ID 24 hours a day. card, which can be checked with a reader carried www.ra.ee by conductors. Paper tickets have b ct ets h been almost completely c signed to the dustbin of history. commpletely consigned y du www www.pil ww www.pilet.ee 11
  12. 12. for sessions of government has functioned to 90 minutes, leaving the ministers much more E-STATE since 2000, and since that time it has not been necessary for ministers to arrive with multiple time for the discussion of critical issues. Via the database, decisions are recorded in writing and e-Government and satchels stuffed with documents. The system may be followed in real time. aids more than ministers, of course. Officials Much of parliament’s work has moved to e-Parliament have access to databases in order to familiarize the internet, as well. Parliament sessions can Estonians have always been practical people. themselves with material, as well as to offer be followed in real time on the parliament’s Why waste paper when you can go without? This their opinions before an active session. This has homepage, and stenographic minutes are practicality is the root of the electronic aspects reduced the formal decision-making process posted the next day, at latest. The parliament’s of Estonia’s government. An information system from the original four or five hours, to only 30 homepage and commission minutes match 12
  13. 13. exactly. Through the e-justice information change his vote in the voting commission, by system, bills may be viewed in all their earlier voting in the traditional manner. forms as they move through the ministries. Via In the 2009 local elections, 104,413 voters used the internet, an interested party can very closely the e-voting system, with 15.7% of votes cast follow the process of creating laws. via internet. The number of e-votes and voter In Estonia, state institutions’ document registers turnout in recent elections indicates a positive are also open. This provides transparency effect of the e-voting system on general voter in government and aids in the reduction turnout.“ of corruption, since every move leaves a www.valimised.ee documented mark. Also, Tallinn’s City Council works along the same lines as parliament – all council sessions can be The e-Citizen’s e Citizen s followed online, and city legislation and other documents are available on the homepage. The e-Gover- www.valitsus.ee nance Academy The e-Governance Academy is a non-profit www.riigikogu.ee information society, development- and analysis centre, with the goal to share Estonia’s experience e-Elections in the areas of e-government, e-democracy, and information technology education. More than Since 2005, everyone in Estonia has had the 700 individuals from 36 different nations have opportunity to vote electronically via the internet. come to learn, including representatives from Using an ID card, a voter may cast his vote from Canada, Japan, Georgia, India, Namibia, and his home or even while travelling abroad. Held Pakistan. a few days before the paper balloting process, Estonian experience and knowledge have e-voting is the most comfortable way to vote. aided many nations to make their election An ID card and PIN code establish the voter’s processes more transparent, democratic, and identity, but the vote remains anonymous, since less encumbered by bureaucracy. immediately after voting the vote is separated from the voter’s connecting digital signature. In www.ega.ee the pre-election stage, the voter is entitled to 13
  14. 14. Electronical ID Card proven security, the state is able to provide so many e-services. The key to almost every innovative e-service The presence of a united, national electronic in Estonia is the electronical ID card — the identification system facilitates an increasing obligatory identification document which offers number of e-services, since developers are a wide range of uses. Inside this small document not required to create a new authentication is a chip, which holds information not only about systems. the card’s owner, but also two certificates, one In addition to the ID card, the mobile ID is of which is used to authenticate identity and gaining popularity among users. The mobile ID the second to render a digital signature. Thanks uses the same infrastructure and is indeed an to its security, the card is used in many web extension of the mobile telephone world. To environments where ID verification is needed. use e-services, it is no longer necessary to carry Internet banking, participation in e-elections, plastic cards — PIN codes can be input directly buying public transportation tickets, and from a mobile telephone. much more can be accomplished using the electronical ID card. The ID card is secure, since PIN codes are also required for the card’s operation. The ID card www.id.ee meets the security requirements set by the United States Department of Defence, and similar technologies are used in banks and other entities where identification is of critical The Estonian company GuardTime developed importance. the solution which ensures digital documents In Estonia, the ID card is the key to electronic cannot be altered via special codes impossible communication between the state and the to forge. Their solution is being used in several citizen. State services are obtainable through international organizations. the help of the ID card, and thanks to the card’s 14
  15. 15. Digital Signature emergence of development monopolies, since the state is not dependent on any single A completely paper-free work culture is developer. This improves competition within predicated on the ability to sign documents the country but also guarantees the existence digitally. This is done with the aid of the ID card. of multiple, high-capability IT companies in the Legally speaking, a digital signature does not country. differ from a signature on paper and both carry the same judicial weight. For example, when forming a company, all Secure e- and Legal documents can be signed digitally. It is not Environments possible to copy a digital signature, and a stolen Estonia’s e-services are regulated by legislation digital signature is invalid without the correct and are in accordance with database security codes. regulations. Estonian laws give e-transactions equal status with paper transactions. A digital The X-road signature is legally identical to one on paper. The abuse of electronic identity is punishable The majority who use ID cards on the internet by law. The protection of personal data in the are unaware that the transaction is connected fulfilment of doing work in the public sphere to multiple databases — it appears as a single and other e-government directives have been database for the sake of user comfort. Since the carried into Estonian law. beginning, Estonia has had the goal of avoiding The keeping of electronic information and the creation of a single nationwide mammoth its use are regulated by several different laws. database. In place of this, a technology called State institutional use of databases is carefully the X-road has been developed, which enables monitored via a log book which records public cross-usage of different institutions’ databases in officials entering the database, as well as the a single portal. information they accessed, which helps in the This modular construction is effective, since evaluation of whether the search was justified. no single critical point exists which might compromise the entire system. A breach in one system does not endanger others. The X-road also helps Estonia avoid the 15
  16. 16. European and Scandinavian states, and despite TECHNOLOGY its small size, the complete paralysis of Estonia’s internet connection is virtually impossible due to AND multiple duplication of access channels. Estonia has equally fast connections to Scandinavia, ACCESSIBILITY Russia, and the rest of Europe. Connection and User Connections Abroad Estonia’s location at the crossroads of Statistics Scandinavia, Europe, and Russia is favourable The internet is an obvious tool that every not only logistically, but also when it comes Estonian recognises. Of the population aged 16- to information technology. Estonian service 74, a full 74% take advantage of it, and 63% of providers are directly connected to many Estonian homes have connections. Only 2% of internet users use dial-up connections. Internet is available in all schools and libraries. 97% of businesses use computers on a daily basis, and 99% of these use the internet. 66% of businesses have a homepage. 40% of businesses choose to 16
  17. 17. receive e-invoices, and 30% of businesses issue them. The GPS-based digital mapping system produced In Estonia, there is not a significant difference in by the company Regio is in use in both western internet users’ sex, education, place of dwelling. and eastern Europe. Services provided under the Whether in the countryside or city, two-thirds name Reach-U are used by many nation’s mobile service providers. of men and women use the internet. More than 60% of new companies are created via the e-business register on the internet. Mobile Applications Mobile Signals and Use of electronic services does not always require Wireless Internet a computer. A mobile telephone often suffices. M-parking is popular, and registration and Estonia is completely covered by three mobile payment may be done via a mobile telephone. network service providers. All the operators The m-ticket service enables the purchase offer internet connections, and in larger towns of tickets on public transport without cash. and cities at least a 3G connection is available. Through a mobile phone it’s possible to buy Additionally, internet via radio frequencies is theatre tickets and pay at the grocery store. available throughout the country. Of Estonia’s m-services developed in Estonia have been 45,000 square kilometres, there are more than successfully applied in other countries, as well. 1,140 publicly registered wireless internet points, most of which are available without cost. It is difficult to find a cafe or restaurant without EstWin free, wireless internet, and the majority of local The state-funded development project EstWin’s governments are also covered by wireless. It’s g goal is to build a new generation broadband difficult to find a place in Estonia where the cu cult find placp network which would reach every Estonian internet does not reach. Even under the most inter rnet d Eve un E en resident by the year 2015 with connection extreme circumstances it’s only a few hundred ex reme c xtre o speeds up to 100Mbit/s. metres to the nearest signa metres o met signal. al. w ww www.wifi.ee www.elasa.ee 17
  18. 18. risk patients are fitted with online-transmitters, CONCLUSION where doctors automatically receive bulletins about their patients’ well being, omitting the Many important and fundamental innovations imp need for patients to spend a day queuing at the e-Esto in e-Estonia have already been accomplished, clinic? Perhaps Estonia could be the first nation in but easin up after establishing momentum is easing the world to rid itself of thousands of kilograms of th out of the question. In an information society, textbooks, and replace them with a lightweight everythin everything changes so quickly that a bystander e-reader such as an Apple iPad, or one of its is quickly trailing in the dust. Significant projects successors? continue, including EstWin, a commitment to This is all in the future, and Estonia intends to be provide e every person and every institution in at the vanguard of developments in every case. the count with an internet connection of 100 country It is Estonia’s policy to continue as an innovative Mbit/s by the year 2015. Also in the works is the and fast-developing nation. Businesses, whose full applic application of our digital healthcare system. goal is to find new, innovative solutions and new And there is the daily work of keeping the existing approaches to old problems, will find Estonia system o e-services up-to-date, simplifying it, of an attractive place. Like Skype Estonia’s chief and makin it increasingly user-friendly. making Sten Tamkivi has said, we already possess the Now is the time to raise the important question – technological competence and IT-favourable what is the role of the state and local governments environment, and our only intention is to improve in Estonia’s e-universe? Can and should we change them. the state’s administrative system as a whole, in Why not come to Estonia and, together with order to take the e-state to a new level? us, bring progressive plans to fruition. We offer Or how far, in general, should we allow e-features ideas, experience, a highly-educated, ambitious to enter our lives? Should every freezer be workforce, and a government and society which equipped with a device that sends the owner a embrace innovation at every level. text message when the food’s “best by” date has expired? Or should we attach a transmitter to Welcome to e Estonia! e-Estonia! nia! every Estonian tree and animal to offer the world’s scientists a unique opportunity to monitor via Estonian Association of Information Techno- internet the condition of one country’s natural logy and Telecommunications environment? Or should Estonia be the first www.itl.ee www.wifi.ee www.wifi.ee w.wi e i nation in the world where pensioners and high- 18
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  20. 20. CONTACT Enterprise Estonia Lasnamäe 2, Tallinn 11412, Estonia Telephone: +372 6279700 Fax: +372 6279701 info@eas.ee www.estonia.eu www.investinestonia.com www.tradewithestonia.com www.visitestonia.com 20