Preschool (Pt 3)


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Psychological and emotional development during Preschool years.

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Preschool (Pt 3)

  1. 1. Preschool (Part 3)
  2. 2. Self-Development <ul><li>Resolving Psychosocial Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative v. Guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Preschool-age children face a conflict between desire to act independently & to do things on their own </li></ul><ul><li>Guilt comes when efforts fail </li></ul><ul><li>They see themselves as a unique person & begin to make decisions on their own </li></ul><ul><li>Parents can help resolve conflict by providing them with opportunities to act self-reliantly while still giving guidance & encourage initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>Set of beliefs about what you are like as an individual </li></ul><ul><li>Their self-descriptions are not necessarily accurate </li></ul><ul><li>They frequently overestimate their skills & knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>They have an optimistic view of the future because they haven’t begun comparing their performance against others’ </li></ul>
  3. 3. Racial & Ethnic Awareness <ul><li>For Many Preschoolers, Racial Awareness Comes Early </li></ul><ul><li>Infants can distinguish between skin colors </li></ul><ul><li>Later children begin to attribute meaning to racial characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>By 3 or 4 they begin to identify their self as a member of a particular racial group </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic identity comes later than racial identity </li></ul><ul><li>Race dissonance: minority children indicating preferences for majority values </li></ul>
  4. 4. Gender Identity <ul><li>Established by Preschool </li></ul><ul><li>Shows up in play </li></ul><ul><li>Prefers same-sex playmates & games </li></ul><ul><li>They have strict ideas about how boys & girls are supposed to act </li></ul><ul><li>Gender-appropriate behavior more stereotyped than many adults </li></ul><ul><li>Become less rigid by age 7 but never disappears </li></ul><ul><li>They have expectations about male & female behaviors </li></ul>
  5. 5. Views of Gender Identity <ul><li>Biology & Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones affect gender-based behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Girls with high androgens prenatally have more male stereotyped behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones influence the growth of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytic View </li></ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><li>The process in which a child attempts to be similar to the same-sex parent </li></ul><ul><li>Freud’s phallic stage </li></ul><ul><li>The Oedipal & Electra complexes </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Edible Complex
  7. 7. Views of Gender Identity <ul><li>Social Learning View </li></ul><ul><li>Children learn gender-related behaviors & expectations from others </li></ul><ul><li>Involved imitation, modeling, reward, & punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive View </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing a gender identity used to form a sense of identity </li></ul><ul><li>To establish a gender identity gender schema (cognitive framework that organizes information relevant to gender) is developed </li></ul><ul><li>Gender-specific rigidity is partly a reflection of preschooler’s understanding of gender </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by beliefs about sexual differences & these differences are based on appearance, not biology </li></ul><ul><li>By 4 or 5 a sense of gender constancy (awareness that people are male or female depending on fixed, unchangeable biological factors) </li></ul><ul><li>Gender stereotyping: assuming certain behaviors are appropriate & others not </li></ul>
  8. 8. Social Lives <ul><li>Developing Friendships </li></ul><ul><li>Around 3 friendships develop </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships with peers are based on the desire for companionship, play, & fun </li></ul><ul><li>With age ideas about friendship evolve </li></ul><ul><li>Younger preschoolers friendships are based on doing things together </li></ul><ul><li>Older preschoolers friendships are based on trust, support, & shared interests </li></ul>
  9. 9. Play <ul><li>Two Kinds of Play </li></ul><ul><li>Functional play </li></ul><ul><li>Simple repetitive activities typical of 3-year olds </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive play </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation of objects to produce or build something </li></ul><ul><li>Gives children the chance to test developing physical & constructive skills & practice fine muscle movements </li></ul><ul><li>They also learn cooperation </li></ul>
  10. 10. Four Types of Play <ul><li>Parallel Play </li></ul><ul><li>Children play with similar toys in a similar manner without interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Onlooker Play </li></ul><ul><li>Children simply watch others at play </li></ul><ul><li>Associative Play </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more children actually interact & share or borrow toys or materials </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Play </li></ul><ul><li>Children play with one another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests </li></ul><ul><li>Associative & cooperative play occur in the latter part of preschool years </li></ul>
  11. 11. Understanding Others <ul><li>Theory of Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to see the world from the perspective of others </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the concept of “pretend” but not the concept of “belief” </li></ul><ul><li>Autism </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological disorder producing significant language & emotional difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>4 in 10,000 born autistic, mainly males </li></ul><ul><li>They lack a connection with others & avoid interpersonal situations </li></ul>
  12. 12. Biological Changes <ul><li>Myelination of the Frontal Lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal Changes Related to Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Culture Plays a Significant Role in the Interpretation of Others’ Actions </li></ul>
  13. 13. Parenting Styles <ul><li>Authoritarian Parenting </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling, punitive, rigid, cold, and not tolerating disagreement </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritative Parenting </li></ul><ul><li>Firm, setting clear limits & consistent limits allowing give-&-take & encouraging independence </li></ul><ul><li>Permissive Parenting </li></ul><ul><li>Lax with inconsistent feedback with little or no limits & requiring little of the children </li></ul><ul><li>Uninvolved Parenting </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no interest in children, indifferent & rejecting the children </li></ul>
  14. 14. Morality <ul><li>Moral Development </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in one’s sense of justice & what’s right & wrong, & the behavior related to moral issues </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget’s 3-stages of Moral Development </li></ul><ul><li>1. Heteronomous morality (4 – 7 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Rules are seen as unchanging & unchangeable </li></ul><ul><li>Immanent justice predominates around this time </li></ul><ul><li>2. Incipient cooperation (7 – 10 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Games become more clearly social with formal rules as to “right” & “wrong” </li></ul><ul><li>3. Autonomous cooperation (Around 10 years +) </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness that rules can be changed & modified if there is agreement </li></ul>
  15. 15. Morality <ul><li>Social Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><li>The environment produces prosocial behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Not all prosocial behavior needs reinforcement to be learned </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules & principles </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy & Moral Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy: the understanding of what another feels </li></ul><ul><li>Preschoolers attempts to avoid negative emotions can lead them to act in a moral manner </li></ul>
  16. 16. Aggression & Violence <ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Intentionally inflicting injury or harm on to another person </li></ul><ul><li>Usually decreases through preschool years </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional self-regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Capability to adjust emotions to a desired state & level of intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression motivated by the desire to obtain a concrete goal </li></ul><ul><li>Rational aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Nonphysical aggression Intended to hurt another’s feelings </li></ul>
  17. 17. Television Violence <ul><li>Exposure to Models </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive behaviors more likely with exposure </li></ul><ul><li>TV violence leads to higher levels of aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Key to understanding moral development is to understand a preschooler’s interpretation of others’ behavior in the environmental context </li></ul>