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Preschool (Pt 2)


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Cognitive growth in preschool years.

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Preschool (Pt 2)

  1. 1. Preschool (Part 2)
  2. 2. Piaget’s Preoperational Thinking <ul><li>The Use of Symbolic Thought, Mental Reasoning,& Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic Function </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to use a mental symbol, a word, or object to stand for or represent something not present </li></ul><ul><li>Relation between language & thought </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic function is the basis of sophisticated language use in the Preoperational Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Language & thinking are interconnected </li></ul><ul><li>Use of language allows the child to think beyond the present to the future </li></ul><ul><li>Language = thought or thought = language? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Centration & Conservation <ul><li>Centration </li></ul><ul><li>The process of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus ignoring other aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Preschooler’s focus is on the superficial, obvious elements </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge that quantity is unrelated to physical appearance or arrangement of objects </li></ul><ul><li>Centration prevents focusing on the relevant features of a situation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Preoperational Thinking <ul><li>Egocentricism </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking that doesn’t take into account others’ viewpoints </li></ul><ul><li>Takes 2 forms: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Lack of awareness that others see things form a different perspective </li></ul><ul><li>2. Failure to realize that others may hold thoughts, feelings, & points of view different from your own </li></ul><ul><li>Seen in talking to oneself in the presence of others or ignoring what others are saying </li></ul>
  5. 5. Preoperational Thinking <ul><li>Intuitive Thought </li></ul><ul><li>Preschooler’s primitive reasoning & keen acquisition of knowledge about the world </li></ul><ul><li>They begin to understand the concept of functionality (actions, events, & outcomes are related to each other in fixed patterns) </li></ul><ul><li>They begin to show awareness of the idea of identity (certain things stay the same regardless of changes in shape, size, & appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Both are important to understand conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>Children have the innate ability to count </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive skills develop in a more continuous manner than stage theories imply </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental changes are more quantitative than qualitative as Piaget claims </li></ul>
  6. 6. Information Processing Approach <ul><li>Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Kinds of “mental programs” children use in problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Preschoolers can count fairly systematically & consistently </li></ul>
  7. 7. Memory <ul><li>Autobiographical Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Memory of particular events on one’s life </li></ul><ul><li>Unless the event is meaningful or vivid, it is likely not to be remembered </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural factors affect memory </li></ul><ul><li>Autobiographical memories fade & inaccurately recalled </li></ul><ul><li>Scripts: broad representations in memory of events & the order in which they occurred </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent events melded into scripts </li></ul>
  8. 8. Evaluating Information Processing <ul><li>Cognitive Development is Gradual </li></ul><ul><li>There are improvements with maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a Comprehensive, Logical Set of Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>There are no vague ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Criticisms </li></ul><ul><li>The focus is on a series of single, individual cognitive processes leaving out other factors that seem to influence cognition </li></ul><ul><li>It pays too much attention to detailed, individual sequences of processes that are not clearly descriptive of what is happening </li></ul>
  9. 9. Vygotsky <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Zone of Proximal Development </li></ul><ul><li>Level at which a child can almost, but not fully, perform a task independently, but can do it with assistance from someone more competent </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>The support for learning & problem solving that encourages independence & growth </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Physical items & intellectual & conceptual framework for solving problems </li></ul>
  10. 10. Vygotsky <ul><li>Cognitive Development & Social Interaction Tied Together </li></ul><ul><li>Children are apprentices, learning from adult & peer mentors </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural & social factors involved in the learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s cognitive development is dependent on the interaction with others </li></ul><ul><li>There are differences in how some societies support learning for boys & girls </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural tools provide a structure that can be used to help children define & solve problems as well as an intellectual POV that encourages cognitive development </li></ul>
  11. 11. Language Growth <ul><li>Syntax </li></ul><ul><li>Combining words & phrases to form sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Fast Mapping </li></ul><ul><li>New words are associated with their meaning only after a brief encounter </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Rules that determine how thoughts can be expressed </li></ul><ul><li>Private Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Speech spoken & directed to oneself </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatics </li></ul><ul><li>Aspect of language relating to communicating effectively & appropriately with others </li></ul><ul><li>Social Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Speech directed toward another & meant to be understood by that person </li></ul>
  12. 12. Language Growth <ul><li>Syntax Increases </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent Use of Plurals & Possessives </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar Principles are Understood </li></ul><ul><li>Private Speech Allows Problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatics Allows an Understanding of the Basics of Conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Preschoolers Begin Directing Speech at Others </li></ul>
  13. 13. Language Exposure <ul><li>Living Conditions Affect Language Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>The type of language children are exposed to is associated with their performance on IQ tests </li></ul><ul><li>Family income & living conditions affect general cognitive development & behavior </li></ul>
  14. 14. Early Childhood Education <ul><li>Involvement in Some Form of Education Before Formal Schooling is Beneficial </li></ul><ul><li>Varieties of early education: </li></ul><ul><li>Child-care centers </li></ul><ul><li>Preschools </li></ul><ul><li>School childcare </li></ul>
  15. 15. Effectiveness of Childcare <ul><li>More Verbal Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Memory & Comprehension Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Higher IQ Scores </li></ul><ul><li>More Self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>More Independent </li></ul><ul><li>More Socially Knowledgeable </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sesame Street <ul><li>Significantly Higher Vocabularies </li></ul><ul><li>Significantly Higher Scores on Measures of Verbal & Math </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be Better Readers Spending More Time Reading </li></ul>