Personality
What is Personality? <ul><li>A general pattern of your behavior, including traits (which characterize you), and modes of a...
Theories of Personality <ul><li>Psychoanalytic Theory of Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Concepts: </li></ul><ul><li>Psychic...
Id  Ego  Superego Id  Ego  Superego
You've heard of the  Freudian Slip ...
The Ego Defenses <ul><li>Repression </li></ul><ul><li>The main ego defense. Acting as if an emotionally painful experience...
The Ego Defenses <ul><li>Projection </li></ul><ul><li>Placing the blame for your difficulties, shortcomings, unethical des...
How Personality Develops <ul><li>Stage Description </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Stage Child lives & loves through its mouth. Tak...
Analytical Personality Theory <ul><li>Carl Jung </li></ul><ul><li>Personality develops through the drive for “mystical” or...
What are Archetypes? <ul><li>Primordial universal images inherited from the past ( human, prehuman, & animal ) that repres...
Some Common Archetypes
Polarities in Personality <ul><li>Introversion </li></ul><ul><li>One who is interested in the inner world of imagination, ...
Individual Psychology <ul><li>Alfred Adler </li></ul><ul><li>We’re governed by the conscious need to express & fulfill our...
Important Concepts <ul><li>The Self </li></ul><ul><li>A subjective system that makes experiences meaningful for you & seek...
The First Feminine Psychology <ul><li>Karen Horney </li></ul><ul><li>Focus was less on the sex drive and more on the role ...
Important Concepts <ul><li>Basic Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>The deep-seated anxiety on children associated with feelings of...
The Feminine Side <ul><li>Horney insisted that women want the same opportunities, the same rights & privileges that societ...
Humanistic Personality Theory <ul><li>Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><li>Saw humans as innately good with positive strivings to...
Important Concepts <ul><li>Phenomenal field </li></ul><ul><li>Your total experience </li></ul><ul><li>Self </li></ul><ul><...
The “Big Five” <ul><li>The Five Factor Model </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Costa, Jr. & Robert McCrae </li></ul><ul><li>Organizes...
Assessing Personality
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Personality

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Personality, Personality & Trait Theories for a General Psychology class.

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Personality

  1. 2. Personality
  2. 3. What is Personality? <ul><li>A general pattern of your behavior, including traits (which characterize you), and modes of adjustment. </li></ul><ul><li>Traits </li></ul><ul><li>Any psychological characteristic you have. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior patterns that are consistent & characteristic & descriptive of you. </li></ul><ul><li>Your unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, & behavior that continues over time & across situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Included are: perceptual dispositions, consistencies in reactions, values, abilities, motives, defenses, temperament, identity, personal style, thoughts, feelings, & environmental relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Differences </li></ul><ul><li>A core concept in psychology </li></ul>
  3. 4. Theories of Personality <ul><li>Psychoanalytic Theory of Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Concepts: </li></ul><ul><li>Psychic Determinism & the Unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>The Structure of the Mind </li></ul><ul><li>The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>The Structure of Personality </li></ul><ul><li>The Id, Ego, & Superego </li></ul>
  4. 5. Id Ego Superego Id Ego Superego
  5. 6. You've heard of the Freudian Slip ...
  6. 7. The Ego Defenses <ul><li>Repression </li></ul><ul><li>The main ego defense. Acting as if an emotionally painful experience doesn’t exist . </li></ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Refusing to perceive that an unpleasant thing doesn’t exist. </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement </li></ul><ul><li>Taking out your feelings on those who had nothing to do with them. </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectualization </li></ul><ul><li>Separating yourself from your emotions using formal, logical, intellectual means . </li></ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing your feelings of self-worth by identifying with (a) person(s) or institution of note. </li></ul><ul><li>Introjection </li></ul><ul><li>“ If you can’t beat ‘em, join ‘em.” </li></ul>
  7. 8. The Ego Defenses <ul><li>Projection </li></ul><ul><li>Placing the blame for your difficulties, shortcomings, unethical desires or unacceptable impulses on to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Hiding anxiety with the opposite emotion and exaggerating the opposite (e.g. love for hate; submission for aggression). </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalization </li></ul><ul><li>Justifying your actions or feelings with socially acceptable explanations rather than acknowledging your true motives or desires. </li></ul><ul><li>Regression </li></ul><ul><li>Retreating to an earlier developmental level with less mature response & usually a lower level of aspiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Sublimation </li></ul><ul><li>Gratifying your frustrated desires in substituted socially acceptable activities. </li></ul>
  8. 9. How Personality Develops <ul><li>Stage Description </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Stage Child lives & loves through its mouth. Taking </li></ul><ul><li>Birth – 2 yrs. through the mouth is behavioral model for </li></ul><ul><li>aquisitiveness. Holding on is behavioral model for refusal & pessimism. Fixation can lead to excessive smoking. </li></ul><ul><li>Anal Stage Toilet training is important at this time. The </li></ul><ul><li>2 – 3 yrs. manner in which the child is toilet trained is the model for generosity. Child learns to “give” (feces) in order to receive something (approval). Anal Retentive & Anal Expulsive fixations. </li></ul><ul><li>Phallic Stage Male child wishes to control mother & get rid </li></ul><ul><li>3 – 6 yrs. of father (rival). Discovers he has a “special organ.” Assumes all females were castrated. Oedipus complex in males, Electra complex in females. Identifies with the opposite-sex parent to control same-sex parent. Fixation leads to homosexuality. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage Description </li></ul><ul><li>Latency Repression of sexual feelings. Little interest is </li></ul><ul><li>Stage expressed in the opposite sex. Prefers the </li></ul><ul><li>6 -12 yrs. Company of the same sex. Fixation can lead to celibacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Hetero- The repressed feelings for the opposite sex </li></ul><ul><li>sexual or emerge with the natural flow of the hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>Genital The person seeks a mate of the opposite sex </li></ul><ul><li>Stage with which to live. </li></ul><ul><li>12+ yrs. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Analytical Personality Theory <ul><li>Carl Jung </li></ul><ul><li>Personality develops through the drive for “mystical” or “religious” experience . </li></ul><ul><li>Layers of the Psyche </li></ul><ul><li>The Conscious Mind/Ego </li></ul><ul><li>The Personal Unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>The Collective Unconscious </li></ul>
  10. 11. What are Archetypes? <ul><li>Primordial universal images inherited from the past ( human, prehuman, & animal ) that represent the common experience of all humans and are the foundation of the whole personality. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important archetypes are: anima, animus, shadow, & persona. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Some Common Archetypes
  12. 13. Polarities in Personality <ul><li>Introversion </li></ul><ul><li>One who is interested in the inner world of imagination, ideas, & emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Tends to be sensitive, idealistic, or defensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Extraversion </li></ul><ul><li>One who lives according to external demands, Is oriented toward the objective world, is realistic & socially active. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Individual Psychology <ul><li>Alfred Adler </li></ul><ul><li>We’re governed by the conscious need to express & fulfill ourselves as unique individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Our basic problem is Insecurity or Inferiority. </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation for shortcomings </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of Inferiority can mislead you to emphasize your own self-interest instead of uniting with the interests of humanity & feeling part of humanity. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurosis & psychosis develop by having insufficient social feelings toward others. </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation </li></ul>
  14. 15. Important Concepts <ul><li>The Self </li></ul><ul><li>A subjective system that makes experiences meaningful for you & seeks experiences that will fulfill your life-style. </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Self </li></ul><ul><li>The innate drive for self-realization, completion, & perfection. </li></ul><ul><li>Life-style </li></ul><ul><li>The individual characteristic way you learn to express your striving for superiority & pursue your goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurosis </li></ul><ul><li>A mistaken “life-style.” </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>The conscious compensation to over-come feelings of inferiority. </li></ul><ul><li>Birth order </li></ul><ul><li>The position you hold in your family due to your birth. </li></ul><ul><li>Inferiority complex </li></ul><ul><li>A general sense of inadequacy, weakness, and helplessness. </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Covering up parts of yourself that you consider unacceptable & substituting more desired traits, sometimes in exaggerated form. </li></ul>
  15. 16. The First Feminine Psychology <ul><li>Karen Horney </li></ul><ul><li>Focus was less on the sex drive and more on the role of social & cultural forces in the development of personality . </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of early relationships </li></ul><ul><li>The parent-child relationship is most important in personality development. </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbances in relationships are the cause of psychological problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger than libido. </li></ul><ul><li>The need for basic security & your response to a real or imagined threat is more important than sex. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotic trends </li></ul><ul><li>To deal with anxiety, adults adopt strategies for coping called Neurotic Trends. </li></ul><ul><li>Submission, aggression, or detachment </li></ul>
  16. 17. Important Concepts <ul><li>Basic Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>The deep-seated anxiety on children associated with feelings of being isolated & helpless in a potentially threatening world. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Hostility </li></ul><ul><li>Deep feelings of resentment children may have toward their parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Womb Envy </li></ul><ul><li>The envy men may harbor toward women for their capacity to bear children. </li></ul>
  17. 18. The Feminine Side <ul><li>Horney insisted that women want the same opportunities, the same rights & privileges that society grants to men. Women must be free to find their personal identities, develop their abilities, and pursue careers if they choose. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Humanistic Personality Theory <ul><li>Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><li>Saw humans as innately good with positive strivings toward self-fulfillment. </li></ul><ul><li>The emphasis is on free-will, self-awareness, & self-growth. </li></ul><ul><li>We all have an innate urge to self-actualize . </li></ul><ul><li>This urge shapes our development. </li></ul><ul><li>We have the potential to become a fully-functioning person. </li></ul>Unconditional Positive Regard
  19. 20. Important Concepts <ul><li>Phenomenal field </li></ul><ul><li>Your total experience </li></ul><ul><li>Self </li></ul><ul><li>The portion of your personality consisting of the perceptions of “I” or “me.” </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenal self </li></ul><ul><li>Your self-image </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal self </li></ul><ul><li>The kind of person you’d like to be. </li></ul><ul><li>True self </li></ul><ul><li>Who you are with your “ego” stripped away & you’re free to be yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditional Positive Regard </li></ul><ul><li>Complete & total acceptance of another </li></ul>
  20. 21. The “Big Five” <ul><li>The Five Factor Model </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Costa, Jr. & Robert McCrae </li></ul><ul><li>Organizes personality traits into opposing factors and describes differences in personality using five categories. These traits have been see in cultures as widely divergent as American, German, Portuguese, Hebrew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese. </li></ul><ul><li>Factor Description of Traits </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Extraversion vs. Sociable vs. Withdrawn </li></ul><ul><li>Introversion Fun-loving vs. Sober </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly vs. Aloof </li></ul><ul><li>Adventurous vs. Cautious </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroticism vs. Anxious vs. Relaxed </li></ul><ul><li>Stability Insecure vs. Secure </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional vs. Calm </li></ul><ul><li>Self-pitying vs. Content </li></ul><ul><li>Openness vs. Closed Original vs. Conventional </li></ul><ul><li>To Experience Imaginative vs. Down-to-Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Broad vs. Narrow Interests </li></ul><ul><li>Open vs. Closed to New Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeableness vs. Good-natured vs. Irritable </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonism Soft-hearted vs. Ruthless </li></ul><ul><li>Courteous vs. Rude </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathetic vs. Tough-minded </li></ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness vs . Well-organized vs. Disorderly </li></ul><ul><li>Undirectedness Dependable vs. Undependable </li></ul><ul><li>Hardworking vs. Lazy </li></ul><ul><li>Ambitious vs. Easygoing </li></ul>
  21. 22. Assessing Personality

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