Learning
What is Learning? <ul><li>A Relatively Permanent Change in Behavior as the Result of Practice or Experience . </li></ul><u...
Learning & the Brain <ul><li>4 Levels of Complexity for Learning in the Brain </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Molecular changes  wit...
Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Ivan Pavlov’s Conditioning Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned the Salivation Respons...
Elements of Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned Response (UCR) </l...
Pavlov’s Experiment <ul><li>The natural response is: </li></ul><ul><li>UCS > UCR </li></ul><ul><li>Paired the CS (NS) with...
The Classical Conditioning Process
Classical Conditioning in Humans <ul><li>Emotional responding </li></ul><ul><li>Loving, liking, & disliking </li></ul><ul>...
Operant Conditioning <ul><li>J.B Watson & B.F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>The Main Law of Behavioristic Psychology: </li></...
Important Terms <ul><li>Stimulus Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction (Ex...
Reinforcement <ul><li>Increases The Strength of a Response </li></ul><ul><li>Positive & Negative Reinforcement </li></ul><...
Shaping Behavior <ul><li>Use of Successive Approximations </li></ul><ul><li>8 Steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on the goal ...
Reinforcement Procedures <ul><li>Reinforcement Schedules </li></ul><ul><li>1. Continuous Reinforcement </li></ul>2. Partia...
Punishment <ul><li>The use of anything that will decrease the strength of a response </li></ul><ul><li>Used to stop a beha...
Comparing Classical & Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Reinforcement is important in both </li></ul><ul><li>Classical    Opera...
Cognitive Learning <ul><li>Latent Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning not immediately seen in behavior </li></ul><ul><li>C...
More on Cognitive Learning <ul><li>Learning Sets </li></ul><ul><li>Learning how to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Learning strate...
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Learning

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The processes of conditioning & learning for a General Psychology class.

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Learning

  1. 2. Learning
  2. 3. What is Learning? <ul><li>A Relatively Permanent Change in Behavior as the Result of Practice or Experience . </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is only through observation. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologists main concern is conditioning. </li></ul><ul><li>Limits to Learning </li></ul><ul><li>The Limitations of the Organism </li></ul><ul><li>1. Biological Predispositions </li></ul><ul><li>No activity can be learned that the organism can’t & doesn’t have the capacity to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Learning Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Human Choice </li></ul><ul><li>Ignorance </li></ul>
  3. 4. Learning & the Brain <ul><li>4 Levels of Complexity for Learning in the Brain </li></ul><ul><li>1. Molecular changes within the single neuron. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Communication among the neurons at the synapses . </li></ul><ul><li>3. The higher circuits of interconnected neurons ( neural pathways ). </li></ul><ul><li>4. The activity within whole assemblies of neurons that might control complex behavior patterns . </li></ul>
  4. 5. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Ivan Pavlov’s Conditioning Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned the Salivation Response in Dogs </li></ul><ul><li>The Pairing of Stimuli over Time </li></ul>
  5. 6. Elements of Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned Response (UCR) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioning (Neutral) Stimulus (CS or NS) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned Response (CR) </li></ul><ul><li>When enough pairings of the UCS & CS occur, this response is created. </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Conditioning uses pre-existing natural responses (e.g. reflexes) and makes them respond on cue. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Pavlov’s Experiment <ul><li>The natural response is: </li></ul><ul><li>UCS > UCR </li></ul><ul><li>Paired the CS (NS) with the UCS and got the UCR </li></ul><ul><li>After enough pairings the CS or NS produced the CR </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated pairings over time establishes responses. </li></ul>
  7. 8. The Classical Conditioning Process
  8. 9. Classical Conditioning in Humans <ul><li>Emotional responding </li></ul><ul><li>Loving, liking, & disliking </li></ul><ul><li>Immune system responding </li></ul><ul><li>T-cells’ response </li></ul><ul><li>Desentization Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Relief from phobic responses </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger Pangs </li></ul><ul><li>Time, smell, & appearance of food </li></ul>
  9. 10. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>J.B Watson & B.F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>The Main Law of Behavioristic Psychology: </li></ul><ul><li>What you reinforce, you’re going to get more of. </li></ul><ul><li>Thorndike’s Law of Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards increase a rewarded response </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a C/E relationship in the environment </li></ul>
  10. 11. Important Terms <ul><li>Stimulus Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction (Extinguishing) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Superstition </li></ul>
  11. 12. Reinforcement <ul><li>Increases The Strength of a Response </li></ul><ul><li>Positive & Negative Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Primary & Secondary Reinforcement </li></ul>
  12. 13. Shaping Behavior <ul><li>Use of Successive Approximations </li></ul><ul><li>8 Steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on the goal </li></ul><ul><li>Decide which behaviors there are to build from </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on a reinforcer </li></ul><ul><li>Plan the program </li></ul><ul><li>Begin the program </li></ul><ul><li>Decide when to shift criteria for reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>If the program is lost, go to an earlier step or add a new one and go on </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to the goal </li></ul>
  13. 14. Reinforcement Procedures <ul><li>Reinforcement Schedules </li></ul><ul><li>1. Continuous Reinforcement </li></ul>2. Partial Reinforcement Ratio (Number) Interval (Time) Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval
  14. 15. Punishment <ul><li>The use of anything that will decrease the strength of a response </li></ul><ul><li>Used to stop a behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions for Punishment to work: </li></ul><ul><li>It must be quick, appropriate, & useful . </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t work as well as reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Can produce Learned Helplessness </li></ul>
  15. 16. Comparing Classical & Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Reinforcement is important in both </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Operant </li></ul><ul><li> Reward     Response     Reward </li></ul><ul><li>In Classical, a C/E relationship must be established between the UCS & CS (NS) </li></ul><ul><li>In Operant, reinforcement schedules make the response resistant to extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Non-rewarding produces extinction in both </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous recovery can occur even after an appropriate response has been established </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus generalization & stimulus discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Occur in both </li></ul><ul><li>New learning can be based on old learning </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation – fitting new information into what is already known </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodation – refining the data into the current schema </li></ul>
  16. 17. Cognitive Learning <ul><li>Latent Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning not immediately seen in behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothetical representation of a learned event </li></ul><ul><li>A strategy for doing something </li></ul><ul><li>A series of S-R sequences </li></ul><ul><li>Insight Learning </li></ul><ul><li>The “Ah-ha!” experience </li></ul><ul><li>4 Criterion: </li></ul><ul><li>It appears all of a sudden </li></ul><ul><li>The first performance is without error </li></ul><ul><li>The solution is well-remembered </li></ul><ul><li>The solution is highly transferable </li></ul>
  17. 18. More on Cognitive Learning <ul><li>Learning Sets </li></ul><ul><li>Learning how to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Learning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Observational Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Bandura’s learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation of observed behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Principles: </li></ul><ul><li>Vicarious learning, vicarious reinforcement, and vicarious punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Style </li></ul><ul><li>Your characteristic approach to a learning situation based on your cultural background & unique pattern of abilities </li></ul>

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