Infancy (Pt 2)


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Cognitive development in early infancy.

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Infancy (Pt 2)

  1. 1. Infancy (Part 2)
  2. 2. Piaget’s Cognitive Development <ul><li>Infant Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Action = Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is a product of motor behavior </li></ul><ul><li>As infants experience changes in what they can & can’t do, they develop cognitively </li></ul><ul><li>Schemes : organized patterns of functioning that adapt & change with mental development </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation : taking in information that is compatible with what is already known </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodation : modifying existing knowledge to fit a particular scheme </li></ul>
  3. 3. Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage <ul><li>Substages </li></ul><ul><li>0 – 1 Month </li></ul><ul><li>Exercising inborn reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>1 – 4 Months </li></ul><ul><li>Primary circular reactions </li></ul><ul><li>4 – 8 Months </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary circular reactions </li></ul><ul><li>8 – 12 Months </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination of secondary circular reactions </li></ul><ul><li>12 – 18 Months </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary circular reactions </li></ul><ul><li>18 – 24 Months </li></ul><ul><li>The beginnings of thought </li></ul><ul><li>Appraising Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>Pro </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptions of cognitive development are generally accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent observations of children </li></ul><ul><li>Children learn by acting on their world </li></ul><ul><li>Con </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of theories not verified by research </li></ul><ul><li>Stages not stop-&-go </li></ul><ul><li>Development is grounded in motor activity </li></ul><ul><li>Infants imitate facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Western cultures </li></ul>
  4. 4. Information Processing <ul><li>Based on ways information is taken in, used, & stored </li></ul><ul><li>Infants develop cognitively via the ways they use their abilities to organize & manipulate information </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive growth is characterized by increasing sophistication, speed, & capacity for information processing </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding, Storing, & Retrieving Information </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding </li></ul><ul><li>Process where information is recorded in a form useable to remember </li></ul><ul><li>Storing </li></ul><ul><li>Placing material into memory </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieving </li></ul><ul><li>Process by which stored information is located, brought to awareness, & used </li></ul>
  5. 5. Infant Memory <ul><li>Memory Capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Some memory capacities exist </li></ul><ul><li>Capabilities increase with age </li></ul><ul><li>The more memory is retrieved the stronger it becomes </li></ul><ul><li>Duration of Memories </li></ul><ul><li>Infantile amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of memory for experience prior to 3 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>Infants do retain memories </li></ul><ul><li>Memories are influenced by interference </li></ul><ul><li>Infant memories do not last into adulthood </li></ul>
  6. 6. Memory Systems <ul><li>Explicit Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Information purposely committed to memory </li></ul><ul><li>Can be recalled by conscious recollection </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Information not purposely committed to memory </li></ul><ul><li>Motor skills, habits, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not involve conscious effort </li></ul>
  7. 7. Intelligence <ul><li>Developmental Scales </li></ul><ul><li>Used to measure infant development </li></ul><ul><li>Gives a developmental quotient </li></ul><ul><li>Motor skills, language use, adaptive behavior, personal- social </li></ul><ul><li>Bayley Scales of Infant Development </li></ul><ul><li>Focus is on mental & motor abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Not predictive of future development </li></ul>
  8. 8. Individual Differences in Intelligence <ul><li>Intelligence is Seen as a Gradual, Step-by-Step Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Visual-recognition memory </li></ul><ul><li>Memory & recognition of a stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Faster the recognition presumed more efficient memory </li></ul><ul><li>Multimodal approach to perception </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to identify a stimulus previously experienced in one sense through another </li></ul>
  9. 9. Language <ul><li>A systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols providing the basis for communication </li></ul><ul><li>Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Phonology </li></ul><ul><li>The basic sounds of a language </li></ul><ul><li>Morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>The smallest language unit that has meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics </li></ul><ul><li>The rules that govern the meaning of words & sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>The understanding of speech </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic Production </li></ul><ul><li>The use of a language to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Prelinguistic Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Communication via sounds, imitation, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Babbling: Making speech-like, meaningless sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Begins around 1 year </li></ul><ul><li>Follows a progression from simple to more complex sounds </li></ul><ul><li>From 6 months babbling resembles sounds of the language the infant is exposed to </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of homing in on their own language is related to the speed of later language development </li></ul>
  10. 10. First Words <ul><li>Occurs 10 – 14 Months </li></ul><ul><li>Defining 1 st words is difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Holophrases </li></ul><ul><li>One-word utterances that stand as a complete phrase </li></ul><ul><li>2-word phrases occur 8 -12 months </li></ul><ul><li>First Sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs about 18 months </li></ul><ul><li>Telegraphic speech: Leaving out non-critical words </li></ul><ul><li>Underextension: Defining words too narrowly </li></ul><ul><li>Overextension: Defining words too broadly </li></ul>
  11. 11. Approaches to Language Learning <ul><li>Learning Theory Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Language acquired through reinforcement & conditioning procedures: Shaping </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t explain how children acquire the rules of language </li></ul><ul><li>Nativist Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Language is an innate skill </li></ul><ul><li>There is a “language acquisition device” </li></ul><ul><li>Language is prewired in the human brain </li></ul><ul><li>Permits the understanding of language & provides a set of strategies & techniques for learning a particular language </li></ul><ul><li>There is a genetic predisposition for language comprehension & production </li></ul><ul><li>Interactionist Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Language development is produced via a combination of genetic predispositions & environmental circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>The course of language development is determined by language exposure & reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking to Children </li></ul><ul><li>Infant-Directed Speech </li></ul><ul><li>A style of speech characterizing much of verbal communications directed toward infants </li></ul><ul><li>“ Motherese” </li></ul><ul><li>Infants exposed to Infant-Directed Speech apparently begin to use words & exhibit linguistic competence sooner </li></ul>