Infancy (Pt 1)

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Physiological growth in early infancy.

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Infancy (Pt 1)

  1. 1. Infancy (Part 1)
  2. 2. The Developing Brain & Nervous System <ul><li>The Neuron </li></ul><ul><li>Basic component of the Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>Number </li></ul><ul><li>Between 100 & 200 Billion at birth </li></ul><ul><li>Growth rate: 250,000 per minute </li></ul><ul><li>Synaptic pruning </li></ul><ul><li>Myelin </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty tissue covering the axon </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with critical periods </li></ul>
  3. 3. Brain Development <ul><li>Plasticity </li></ul><ul><li>The Degree that the brain is modified by experience </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive Period </li></ul><ul><li>A time in development when the organism is susceptible to environmental influences in relating to some particular facet of development </li></ul><ul><li>Influence on the Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Greater stimulation produces greater growth </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rhythms of Living <ul><li>Sleep & Wakefulness </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeps 16 – 18 hours per day </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep is in fits & starts </li></ul><ul><li>REM Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Brain waves are different than adults </li></ul><ul><li>REM sleep in infants is not associated with dreaming </li></ul>
  5. 5. Motor Development <ul><li>Reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>Occur automatically with a stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Rooting, sucking, stepping, Moro, Babinski, startle, eye-blink, gag, swimming </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Gross Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Involves large muscle groups </li></ul><ul><li>Fine Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Involves smaller muscle groups </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Systems Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Motor behaviors are “assembled” into coordinated groups of muscles, perceptions, nervous systems activations, and motivation all carried out at the same time </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nutrition & Motor Development <ul><li>Malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Having an improper amount & balance of nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Has negative results </li></ul><ul><li>Slower growth rate </li></ul><ul><li>Lower IQ </li></ul><ul><li>Kwashiorkor </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Weight greater than 20% above the average for a given height </li></ul>
  7. 7. Feeding <ul><li>Breastfeeding </li></ul><ul><li>Has advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Easily digested </li></ul><ul><li>Can help cognitive growth </li></ul><ul><li>Weaning </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural variations </li></ul><ul><li>Some wean as early as 3 - 4 months, others 3 – 4 years </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended to breastfeed for the 1 st year </li></ul>
  8. 8. Development of the Senses <ul><li>Visual Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Neonate can see only about 1 foot </li></ul><ul><li>Minutes after birth shows preferences for certain stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Within a few hours prefers mother’s face </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Able to hear prior to birth </li></ul><ul><li>Prefers mother’s voice </li></ul><ul><li>Smell & Taste </li></ul><ul><li>Strong sense of smell & taste </li></ul><ul><li>Pain & Touch </li></ul><ul><li>Painful stimuli produce physical & emotional responses </li></ul>

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