G & D Ch. 16


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Socioemotional Development in Late Adulthood

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  • G & D Ch. 16

    1. 1. CHAPTER 16 Socioemotional Development in Late Adulthood
    2. 2. Theories of Psychosocial Aging <ul><li>Aging </li></ul><ul><li>Individual process </li></ul><ul><li>Involves variations in physical changes, cognitive functioning, & mental health </li></ul>
    3. 3. Theories of Psychosocial Aging <ul><li>Integrity v. Despair </li></ul><ul><li>Final stage of development </li></ul><ul><li>Involves a Life Review in a positive or negative way </li></ul><ul><li>Includes a reevaluation of previous experiences & their meaning </li></ul><ul><li>May include revising or expanding the understanding taking place </li></ul><ul><li>Can have a positive influence on the older adults’ mental health </li></ul><ul><li>Activity Theory </li></ul><ul><li>The more active and involved the older adult is the more likely is the satisfaction in life </li></ul><ul><li>Research found that more active, energetic, & productive an older adult is the happier and more successful s/he feels </li></ul>
    4. 4. Theories of Psychosocial Aging <ul><li>Socioemotional Selectivity Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Older adults become more selective about their social networks </li></ul><ul><li>They have a higher value on emotional satisfaction & spend more time with persons they have rewarding relationships with </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Successful aging is related to three main factors: </li></ul><ul><li>selection – loss of function requires a reduction of activity in many domains of life </li></ul><ul><li>optimization – possible to maintain performance in some areas & use new technologies </li></ul><ul><li>compensation – for circumstances with high mental or physical demands </li></ul>
    5. 5. Bias & Discrimination <ul><li>Gender bias & the glass ceiling </li></ul><ul><li>Women in high-status jobs unusual </li></ul><ul><li>5% vice president or above </li></ul><ul><li>Sex discrimination: denying a job to someone solely on the basis of whether the person is a man or woman </li></ul><ul><li>Glass ceiling </li></ul><ul><li>The level to which a woman may rise in a company but not beyond </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest barrier to women is boundary between lower- & upper-tier job grades </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of glass ceiling in private corporations, government agencies, & nonprofit organizations </li></ul><ul><li>In many occupations men are paid much more than women in the same position </li></ul><ul><li>On average, women paid less than ¾ of what men are paid </li></ul>
    6. 6. Bias & discrimination <ul><li>Comparable worth </li></ul><ul><li>Equalizing pay in occupations determined to be equivalent in importance but differ in the gender distribution of the people doing the job </li></ul><ul><li>Establish gender-neutral job evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual harassment: </li></ul><ul><li>70% of women and men report sexual harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 5% ever report their experiences </li></ul><ul><li>More than 40% women report sexual harassment more than once </li></ul><ul><li>Victims often single or divorced women under 35 </li></ul>
    7. 7. Age Discrimination <ul><li>Denying a job or promotion to someone solely on the basis of age </li></ul><ul><li>Usually happens prior to or after interaction with human resources staff </li></ul><ul><li>Making certain types of physical or mental Performance a job Requirement & argue that older workers can’t meet the standard prior to an interview </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to get rid of older employees w/retirement incentives </li></ul>
    8. 8. Siblings <ul><li>5 Types of Sibling Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>1. Intimate sibling relationships </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of closeness but low levels of envy & resentment </li></ul><ul><li>2. Congenial sibling relationships </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of closeness & involvement, average levels of contact, & relatively low levels of envy & resentment </li></ul><ul><li>3. Loyal sibling relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Average levels of closeness, involvement, & contact & relatively low levels of envy & resentment </li></ul><ul><li>4. Apathetic sibling relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Low levels on all dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>5. Hostile sibling relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively high levels of involvement & resentment & relatively low levels on all other dimensions </li></ul>
    9. 9. Families & Social Relationships <ul><li>Married Older Adults </li></ul><ul><li>Those in a marriage or partnership over 65 are happier, less distressed, & live longer </li></ul><ul><li>Divorced & Remarried </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce can weaken kinship ties when it occurs later in life </li></ul><ul><li>It can also be financially problematic </li></ul><ul><li>Cohabiting </li></ul><ul><li>More for companionship than for love </li></ul><ul><li>Financial reasons as well </li></ul>
    10. 10. Children <ul><li>More important than siblings </li></ul><ul><li>Often provide support & care </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental stake in close ties because children seen as perpetuating their beliefs, values, & standards </li></ul><ul><li>75% of children live within a 30-mile drive of parents </li></ul><ul><li>Daughters tend to be more frequent contact than sons </li></ul><ul><li>Mothers tend to be the recipient of communication more than fathers </li></ul><ul><li>Children may turn to parents for advice, information, & monetary help </li></ul>
    11. 11. Friends & Siblings <ul><li>Friendships </li></ul><ul><li>Having at least 1 close friend or confidant provides a buffer against the losses of roles & status accompanying old age </li></ul><ul><li>Older women have more numerous & more intimate friendships than men </li></ul><ul><li>Socioemotional selectivity: </li></ul><ul><li>Social contact is motivated by many goals, including information seeking, self-concept, & emotional regulation </li></ul>
    12. 12. Elder Abuse & Neglect <ul><li>Categories of Abuse: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional or psychological abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Financial or material exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Abandonment </li></ul><ul><li>Neglect </li></ul><ul><li>Self-neglect </li></ul>
    13. 13. Elder Abuse & Neglect <ul><li>Prevalence </li></ul><ul><li>Over 551,000 over 60 abused or neglected in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Common Forms </li></ul><ul><li>Neglect, physical abuse, financial & material exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Victims </li></ul><ul><li>Over 80 abused 2 – 3 times more than under 80 </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Age, poverty, race, functional & cognitive impairment, & living with someone else </li></ul><ul><li>90% by someone known, family member </li></ul><ul><li>Trusted persons also take advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Bankers, accountants, attorneys, & clergy (televangelests) </li></ul><ul><li>Telemarketers </li></ul>
    14. 14. Elder Abuse & Neglect <ul><li>Causes of Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Consider several things </li></ul><ul><li>1. Intrapersonal problems of the caregiver </li></ul><ul><li>Substance abuse, mental disorder, behavior problems </li></ul><ul><li>2. Interpersonal problems of the caregiver </li></ul><ul><li>Family or marital conflict, poor relationship with care-recipient </li></ul><ul><li>3. Social characteristics of the care recipient </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of social support & past abuse </li></ul>
    15. 15. Ethnicity, Gender, & Culture <ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans & Latinos are over-represented in poverty statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Also face ageism & racism </li></ul><ul><li>Receive lesser treatment for illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Men become more nurturant, sensitive, etc. as they age </li></ul><ul><li>Women face ageism & sexism </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for older adults greater in collectivist cultures than in individualistic cultures </li></ul>
    16. 16. Successful Aging <ul><li>Factors in Aging Successfully </li></ul><ul><li>Active Lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Coping Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Good Social Relationships & Support </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of Disease </li></ul>
    17. 17. Politics <ul><li>Social Security </li></ul><ul><li>Originally intended to provide a supplement to savings & other means of financial support </li></ul><ul><li>Medicare </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 40 million depend on Medicare </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of 2 parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Part A </li></ul><ul><li>Covers inpatient hospital services, skilled nursing facilities home health services, & hospice care </li></ul><ul><li>Part B </li></ul><ul><li>Covers the cost of physician services, outpatient hospital services, medical equipment & supplies, & other health services </li></ul><ul><li>Out-of-pocket expenses associated with copayments & other charges often paid by supplemental insurance policies </li></ul>