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CHAPTER 1 The Study of Human Development
Human Development <ul><li>Multidisciplinary study of how people change and how they remain the same over time </li></ul><u...
Recurring Issues in Human Development   <ul><li>Nature vs. Nurture </li></ul><ul><li>* Involves hereditary and environment...
Interacting Processes in Human Development   <ul><li>Biological Processes   </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Processes   </...
Developmental Theories   <ul><li>Psychodynamic Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Psychosexual & Psychosocial Theories </li></u...
Psychodynamic Theory <ul><li>Human behavior is largely governed by unconscious internal motives & drives   </li></ul><ul><...
Piaget’s Theory <ul><li>Children naturally try to make sense of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Children construct their knowl...
Learning Theory <ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Personality develops through operant conditioning procedures; reinfo...
Information Processing <ul><li>Human cognition consists of mental hardware and mental software   </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks t...
Vygotsky’s Theory <ul><li>Sociocultural Theory </li></ul><ul><li>A child’s understanding of the world is acquired through ...
Cognitive Neuroscience Approach <ul><li>Looks at Cognitive Development through Brain Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks to ...
Humanistic Perspective <ul><li>Humans have a degree of free will and can choose the direction of their lives and control t...
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological & Systems Theory <ul><li>Human development is inseparable from the environmental contexts in w...
Evolutionary Perspective <ul><li>Seeks to identify behaviors in todays humans that are the result of genetic inheritance f...
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G & D Ch. 1

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Introduction to Life-Span Development

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G & D Ch. 1

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 The Study of Human Development
  2. 2. Human Development <ul><li>Multidisciplinary study of how people change and how they remain the same over time </li></ul><ul><li>A pattern of change beginning at conception and continuing throughout life </li></ul>
  3. 3. Recurring Issues in Human Development <ul><li>Nature vs. Nurture </li></ul><ul><li>* Involves hereditary and environmental influences in determining the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity vs. Discontinuity </li></ul><ul><li>* Concerns whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents a smooth progression through live (continuity) or a series of abrupt shifts (discontinuity) </li></ul><ul><li>Universal vs. Context-Specific Development </li></ul><ul><li>* Concerns whether there is one developmental path or several </li></ul>
  4. 4. Interacting Processes in Human Development <ul><li>Biological Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Socioemotional Processes </li></ul>
  5. 5. Developmental Theories <ul><li>Psychodynamic Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Psychosexual & Psychosocial Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Modification & Cognitive Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Paiget’s Theory & Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Information Processing Approach </li></ul><ul><li>How information is accessed, used, & stored </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Neuroscience Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Development via brain processes </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>How people make decisions and control their behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Genetically inherited behavior patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Bronfenbrener’s Ecological & System’s Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Development is inseparable from the environment </li></ul>
  6. 6. Psychodynamic Theory <ul><li>Human behavior is largely governed by unconscious internal motives & drives </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Personality develops through an interaction of an internal maturational plan & external social demands </li></ul><ul><li>Stages based on the epigenetic principle that each psychosocial strength has its own time or period of ascendancy or importance </li></ul>
  7. 7. Piaget’s Theory <ul><li>Children naturally try to make sense of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Children construct their knowledge of their world and these constructions change over time </li></ul><ul><li>Children construct knowledge in new ways at critical points in their development (about 2 yrs., about 7 yrs., and before puberty) </li></ul><ul><li>4 developmental stages w/each one representing a more sophisticated organization & reasoning </li></ul>
  8. 8. Learning Theory <ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Personality develops through operant conditioning procedures; reinforcement & punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><li>People learn a lot through observational learning & imitation combined with reward & punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Experience gives people a sense of self-efficacy (beliefs about their own abilities and talents) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Information Processing <ul><li>Human cognition consists of mental hardware and mental software </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks to identify the ways people take in, use, and store information </li></ul>
  10. 10. Vygotsky’s Theory <ul><li>Sociocultural Theory </li></ul><ul><li>A child’s understanding of the world is acquired through problem-solving interactions with adults & other children. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the course of development it is necessary to consider what is meaningful to those of a given culture. </li></ul><ul><li>The emphasis is on Reciprocal Transactions between people in the child’s environment & the child </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cognitive Neuroscience Approach <ul><li>Looks at Cognitive Development through Brain Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks to identify the locations & functions in the brain that are related to different cognitive activities. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Humanistic Perspective <ul><li>Humans have a degree of free will and can choose the direction of their lives and control their behavior </li></ul><ul><li>We all have the potential for self-actualization which is our primary goal in life. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans have a need for positive regard that results from an underlying wish to be loved & respected. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological & Systems Theory <ul><li>Human development is inseparable from the environmental contexts in which the person develops </li></ul><ul><li>Microsystem consists of the people & objects in the immediate environment (people closest to individual) </li></ul><ul><li>Microsystems are connected to create a Mesosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Exosystem is the social settings a person may not experience firsthand but still influences development (government policies) </li></ul><ul><li>Macrosystem is the subcultures & cultures in which all are embedded </li></ul><ul><li>Chronosystem is time: the sociohistorical continuum over the course of life </li></ul>Chronosystem
  14. 14. Evolutionary Perspective <ul><li>Seeks to identify behaviors in todays humans that are the result of genetic inheritance from our ancestors </li></ul>

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