Critical Thinking 10


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How you can effectively maintain a positive self-image in the face of life's problems.

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Critical Thinking 10

  1. 1. Adapting to the Demands and Challenges of Daily Living How can you effectively maintain a positive self-image in the face of life’s problems?
  2. 2. Managing Stress <ul><li>What is stress? </li></ul><ul><li>A nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it </li></ul><ul><li>These responses include: Increases in blood pressure and Heart and respiration rate </li></ul><ul><li> The release of adrenaline </li></ul><ul><li> Increases in muscle tension </li></ul><ul><li> Slowing of digestive functioning </li></ul><ul><li> The mobilization of the immune system to destroy bacteria and viruses </li></ul>
  3. 3. Stress Represents . . . <ul><li>Your body’s reaction to demands and challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological responses create a state of arousal that provides the energy for the “fight-or-flight” response </li></ul><ul><li>Your mental reactions to demands and challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Very specific thoughts and emotions also accompany stressful events </li></ul><ul><li>Your thoughts can range from, “I can’t handle this,” to “I’m going to handle this pretty well.” </li></ul><ul><li>The interaction of your mind and body </li></ul><ul><li>Your mental and physical reactions to stressful events influence each other </li></ul><ul><li>Effective stress management helps you to learn ways to manage your mental reactions, overt responses, and the internal bodily reactions </li></ul>
  4. 4. Physical and Psychological Stressors <ul><li>Stressors </li></ul><ul><li>Events that produce stress </li></ul><ul><li>They can be physical stimuli (cold, loud noises, bright lights, etc.) or psychological (social change, poverty, arguments, divorce, marriage, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical stressors </li></ul><ul><li>Stressors that exist in the environment and naturally trigger basic physiological processes involved in illness, pain, or discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological stressors </li></ul><ul><li>Your perception of the events you’re encountering </li></ul><ul><li>Whether an event is a stressor or not depends on your first analyzing and then labeling it as uncomfortable </li></ul>
  5. 5. Appraising and Event as Stressful <ul><li>This appraisal process has three components: </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipating the event </li></ul><ul><li>The event must first be categorized as either relevant or irrelevant to your life </li></ul><ul><li>Circumstances judged as relevant or important are appraised to determine their potential to produce pleasant or unpleasant effects </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing your ability to cope </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have the resources to cope? </li></ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy is your judgment about your perceived capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to handle a situation </li></ul><ul><li>The control of your thoughts, emotions, and motor skills to deal with a situation are important capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating the outcomes of your efforts to cope </li></ul><ul><li>Later, you reflect and judge whether your efforts were successful or not assessing the benefits and costs that occurred </li></ul>
  6. 6. Focusing on Evaluating the Event <ul><li>The evaluation might help you to discover that you didn’t exercise as much control over the situation as you could have </li></ul><ul><li>Often, you have more control over events than you exercise </li></ul><ul><li>What you learn in this part of the process can help you cope in the future </li></ul><ul><li>Not everyone will appraise an event the same way </li></ul><ul><li>Distortions and mistakes in appraising events </li></ul><ul><li>The result is more stress </li></ul><ul><li>You may also underestimate the event </li></ul><ul><li>Distortions in appraising may represent defensive pessimism </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive pessimism is a self-handicapping strategy in which low expectations for success in coping are set before experiencing a stressful event: “Worst-case scenario” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Stressors Interfere with Need and Goal Satisfaction <ul><li>It is much more difficult to satisfy your needs and achieve goals when you’re stressed out </li></ul><ul><li>Events are more stressful when they’re perceived as unpredictable and/or uncontrollable </li></ul><ul><li>When the goal is important, the perceived impact of the stressor will be greater and the stress level will be increased </li></ul>
  8. 8. Stressors Produce Multiple Reactions <ul><li>Repeated exposure to even mild stress or long exposures to more severe stress decreases your ability to function effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Physical exhaustion and illness can result and will hamper your ability to work and relate to others </li></ul><ul><li>Frustration, anxiety, and depression can also occur </li></ul><ul><li>Self-defeating and self-downing thinking tend to increase </li></ul><ul><li>Critical and negative thinking about others can result </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>G A S </li></ul><ul><li>R </li></ul><ul><li>E </li></ul><ul><li>Your response to stressors involves both the nervous system and the endocrine/hormonal system </li></ul><ul><li>In particular, the hypothalamus and pituitary gland </li></ul><ul><li>The Alarm Stage </li></ul><ul><li>A state of tension, alertness, and readiness to respond </li></ul><ul><li>The Resistance Stage </li></ul><ul><li>The body mobilizes its energy to meet the demands of the stressor </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaustion Stage </li></ul><ul><li>If the stress continues over time, the body runs out of energy and is unable to continue </li></ul>The General Adaptation Syndrome
  10. 10. Common Stressors <ul><li>Personal limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Physical handicaps, diseases, deficiencies in social and intellectual skills, and lack of education </li></ul><ul><li>Type A Behavior Pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Hard-driving, energetic, competitive, and impatient, trying to do too much at one time </li></ul><ul><li>They become angry or hostile when challenged and worry about someone besting them </li></ul><ul><li>They run the risk of cardiovascular and other stress-related problems </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to life’s demands with anger produces higher levels of physiological arousal add to that the tendency of Type A’s not to rest when tired, to smoke, to drink coffee, and to exercise less produces problems </li></ul><ul><li>Type A’s behavior patterns stem from the way they’re trying to cope with their insecurity and a fear of failure, which developed from early relationships </li></ul>
  11. 11. More Common Stressors <ul><li>Overcommitment and Overdedication </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to push themselves to the point of emotional and physical exhaustion </li></ul><ul><li>Overcommitment and overdedication takes a toll when they begin to question whether their efforts are worthwhile and producing anything, and they become pessimistic and burn-out </li></ul><ul><li>The environment where you are is an important part of your response </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Style </li></ul><ul><li>Type A behavior and burn-out patterns adopt styles of communication that create additional stress </li></ul><ul><li>Type A’s tend to be more demanding and elicit more passive and submissive responses from others </li></ul><ul><li>Burn-out pattern persons elicit dominant responses from others and display more submissive and passive behaviors </li></ul>
  12. 12. More Common Stressors <ul><li>Major Changes in Your Life </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage, death, loss of a relationship, divorce, injury, new job, promotion, losing a job, vacations, birth of a child </li></ul><ul><li>Both positive and negative changes can prevent you from accomplishing certain goals and force unexpected developments which produce new goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Life changes disrupt the normal flow of your life, they don’t usually produce unpleasant stress </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Hassles </li></ul><ul><li>Minor changes that occur every day can be stressful </li></ul><ul><li>The frequency, duration, and intensity of these hassles is important in determining how stressful they will become </li></ul><ul><li>Your mood when the hassle occurs is important as to your reaction </li></ul><ul><li>People with a high number of daily hassles tend to have more respiratory infections, headaches, bad dreams, crying spells, and tend to get angry, excited, and are more uneasy, bored, and restless </li></ul>
  13. 13. Adverse environmental events <ul><li>Posttraumatic Stress Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by nightmares, flashbacks, distress when reminded of the event, irritability, difficulty concentrating, difficulties sleeping, the use of drugs or alcohol, and general unresponsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Severe storms, famines, fires, earthquake, wars all can produce immense stress </li></ul><ul><li>A person affected by PTSD tends to ruminate passively about their problems rather than actively confront them </li></ul><ul><li>Less severe environmental stimulation includes air pollution, hot or cold weather, and noise from planes, trains, trucks, automobiles, and industrial processing </li></ul><ul><li>This stimulation is also distracting making it difficult to concentrate and it interferes with your ability to get and retain information </li></ul>
  14. 14. Coping with Stress <ul><li>Five Goals of Coping </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent and reduce distress </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping a moderate amount of stress keeps you alert and ready to respond </li></ul><ul><li>Too little stress causes boredom; too much and you’re overwhelmed </li></ul><ul><li>Create eustress </li></ul><ul><li>When responses to stressors lead to productive outcomes and constructive coping, this is eustress </li></ul><ul><li>Coping skills are needed </li></ul><ul><li>Strive to live within your comfort zone </li></ul><ul><li>You need to keep a certain level of arousal from stressors to stay within your comfort zone </li></ul><ul><li>Buffer and protect yourself from negative consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Coping helps to cushion the effects of stressors and provides a certain amount of protection from them </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve, replenish, and build an inventory of resources needed to manage stress </li></ul><ul><li>The coping process is where you spend a variety of resources to deal with a situation </li></ul><ul><li>The more resources you have to spend, the better you cope </li></ul><ul><li>Material resources, personal qualities, and social support are resources </li></ul>
  15. 15. Achieving the Goals for Coping with Stress <ul><li>Thinking constructively </li></ul><ul><li>Restructure how events are perceived </li></ul><ul><li>Irrational beliefs fuel emotional fires </li></ul><ul><li>Words like all, every, always, never, totally, essential, must, should, have to, need to, ought to, must, awful, terrible, horrible lead to personal problems leading to depression, irritability, loneliness, excessive worrying, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Three categories of irrational beliefs: </li></ul><ul><li>Drivers : perfectionism, do it yesterday, macho, self- sacrifice, push to the limit </li></ul><ul><li>Stoppers : catastrophizing, negative thinking, arbitrary inference, rigidity, living in the past, waiting around, quitting, procrastination </li></ul><ul><li>Distorters : overgeneralizing, blaming others, narrow- minded, denial, stereotyping, either/or thinking, overestimating, illogical thinking, personalization </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Thinking Constructively </li></ul><ul><li>Restructuring how you think about events helps reduce distress </li></ul><ul><li>Look for a balanced, less absolute perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a hardy mental outlook </li></ul><ul><li>With better health habits, stress can be handled more efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment means that hardy individuals approach life with a sense of purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Being committed to goals means you don’t go passively through life </li></ul><ul><li>You will also see yourself at cause and see problems as a challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Get better at setting personal goals </li></ul><ul><li>Set and be committed to goals that will provide a challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a small-win attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Divide the problems into smaller parts and work through the parts </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>time management </li></ul><ul><li>Organize and manage your time more effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Establish priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Organize your activities allocating them into specific periods of time </li></ul><ul><li>Filter your activities to determine what you really need to do </li></ul><ul><li>The challenge is setting and acting upon your priorities within the time available </li></ul><ul><li>Personal priorities need to focus on: Preventing problems </li></ul><ul><li>Building relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Acting on new opportunities for yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Finding time for recreation and leisure </li></ul><ul><li>Become a little selfish </li></ul><ul><li>A selfish approach to life means you take time out of your daily schedule to devote to yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxing, taking walks, hobbies, reading, enhancing various skills, and other growth-producing activities </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Relaxation Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation helps to relieve stress, decrease tension, and slow down the physiological arousal associated with stress </li></ul><ul><li>Slow, rhythmic breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Many different techniques you can use </li></ul><ul><li>You may use a “mantra” or key word that can help you to relax </li></ul><ul><li>Guided Imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing yourself in a nature scene where you are relaxed and comfortable </li></ul><ul><li>Take your time to enjoy each scenario within your nature scene </li></ul><ul><li>Disengage yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever you feel tense and stressed, stop what you’re doing and thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Take a deep breath, and tell yourself to relax and clear your mind of all thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on only one thing apart from where you are </li></ul>
  19. 19. Seeking Social Support <ul><li>People who seek social support have fewer medical and emotional problems </li></ul><ul><li>Social support is an effective buffer from stress </li></ul><ul><li>Types of social support: </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional support (Having someone to talk to about your feelings) </li></ul><ul><li>Informational support (Someone to provide advice and information needed to help) </li></ul><ul><li>Material support (Provide you with equipment, money, or direct assistance) </li></ul><ul><li>Seek advice from those in the best position to help you </li></ul><ul><li>Social support works best when it is specific to the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Two conditions for obtaining effective help: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Be clear about what you want from the other person </li></ul><ul><li>2. State your goals before discussing the problem </li></ul>
  20. 20. Develop Physical Hardiness <ul><li>Integrate more physical activity and exercise into your life </li></ul><ul><li>Regular exercise increases physical endurance and decreases the risk of cardiovascular problems </li></ul><ul><li>It takes your mind off problems, reduces inner tension, improves your mood, enhances your self-image, you feel less frustrated, anxious, and depressed putting you more in control of your life </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate a variety of physical activities into your life-style </li></ul><ul><li>Brisk walks, jogging, swimming, dancing, bicycling, calisthenics, weight training, handball, golf, tai chi, karate, kung fu </li></ul><ul><li>Eat a healthy diet </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce coffee intake, junk food, high fat foods, sweets, red meat, high carbohydrates, dairy products </li></ul><ul><li>Increase fruits, vegetables, nuts </li></ul>
  21. 21. Achieving Your Coping Goals <ul><li>Coping forces you to spend time, energy, and possibly even money; to use certain personal qualities such as a positive mental outlook and use various types of information, skills, and abilities to solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Because you face a great many stressors daily, there’s some risk that your supply of resources may become depleted </li></ul><ul><li>Four things to do to avoid depleting your resources </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve resources you already have and replenish those that were used </li></ul><ul><li>Use one or more resources to offset the loss of others </li></ul><ul><li>Increase your inventory of existing resources to help you better meet future demands and challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate your resources </li></ul>
  22. 22. Anxiety <ul><li>Anxiety and the appraisal of stressors </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety is an unpleasant feeling that occurs in response to an anticipated threat to your psychological or physical well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety happens in response to events that you expect to occur </li></ul><ul><li>If levels of anxiety are too high, it can interfere with your ability to think and behave appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety also can occur if you evaluate your attempts to cope as unsuccessful </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes people learn to become anxious either through a traumatic experience, just thinking about one, or coming in close proximity to one: This is called a Conditioned Emotional Response </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety can also be acquired through the process of imitation and learning </li></ul>
  23. 23. Coping with Anxiety <ul><li>Passive coping </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to manage anxiety and other negative emotions with relaxation, guided imagery, meditation, and trying not to let it bother you </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive coping </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic and unconscious defense mechanisms kick in for short-term relief </li></ul><ul><li>Do the things you fear </li></ul><ul><li>Facing and challenging your fears </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes best done in small doses </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in some self-coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Observing how someone you respect manages fears </li></ul><ul><li>Listening to the advice of people who encourage you </li></ul><ul><li>“ Coaching” yourself through anxious moments </li></ul>
  24. 24.  The causes of depression  <ul><li>Depression and the process of appraising stressors </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by prolonged sadness or apathetic mood that doesn’t seem to go away </li></ul><ul><li>Depression can range from mild to severe </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling depressed is a possible outcome of the appraisal process </li></ul><ul><li>Learned helplessness can develop: “It doesn’t matter what I do; it won’t work” </li></ul><ul><li>Explanatory style is how you explain good and bad events in your life, and this contributes to the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Biological factors </li></ul><ul><li>There is some genetic predisposition to depression </li></ul>
  25. 25. Coping with Depression <ul><li>Disputing Pessimistic Explanations for Events </li></ul><ul><li>Changing your internal dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Reframing and reinterpreting events </li></ul><ul><li>Seek small wins, learn to relax more, develop social support networks, and work on your health </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling and Drug Therapies </li></ul><ul><li>When depression goes on for too long, or is very severe, you may need to seek therapy to work through it </li></ul><ul><li>If the depression isn’t reduced, you may need drugs </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Role of Your Self-Image <ul><li>Three important definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Self – the “I,” “me.” or “myself” </li></ul><ul><li>Self-image – how you see yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Self-concept – how you define yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem – the positive or negative feelings about yourself overall </li></ul><ul><li>The self-image as a guide and regulator of your actions </li></ul><ul><li>The “self” is tied to the roles you play and these roles are scripts that guide your actions </li></ul><ul><li>The self-concept includes a variety of roles, so conflict can develop between roles </li></ul><ul><li>The self-image in developing and maintaining relationships </li></ul><ul><li>If you have insight into your positive and negative characteristics, you can see others more accurately </li></ul>
  27. 27. Setting Goals for Self-Renewal <ul><li>Self-renewal involves adopting new or changing existing roles, acquiring new or modifying existing personal characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Six questions to ask: </li></ul><ul><li>What goals for self-renewal do I want to pursue? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do I want to achieve this particular goal? </li></ul><ul><li>What positive and negative effects would pursuing this goal have for my life? </li></ul><ul><li>Have I stated my goals in ways that will maximize my chances of achieving them? </li></ul><ul><li>Do I possess the skills, abilities, and information needed to achieve my goals? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways can other people help me? </li></ul>