CHAPTER 3 Physical & Cognitive Development In Infancy
Principles of Physical Growth <ul><li>Cephalocaudal Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Growth patterns are from the head down </l...
Brazelton Assessment Scale <ul><li>Used to determine infants’ neurological & behavioral responses to their environment </l...
The Reflexes <ul><li>Reflex Stimulation  Response Developmental Pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Blinking Flash of light, puff  C...
Physical Development   <ul><li>Growth of the Body </li></ul><ul><li>Average height & normal height are not the same thing ...
Developing Nervous System   <ul><li>Neuron </li></ul><ul><li>Dendrites, Cell Body, Axon, Terminal Buttons, Synapse, Neurot...
The Developing Brain & Nervous System <ul><li>The Neuron </li></ul><ul><li>Basic component of the Nervous System </li></ul...
Emerging Brain Structures   <ul><li>Neural Plate   </li></ul><ul><li>Flat structure that develops in the zygote about 3 we...
Brain Development <ul><li>Plasticity </li></ul><ul><li>The Degree that the brain is modified by experience </li></ul><ul><...
Neural Plasticity   <ul><li>Extent to Which the Brain is Organized is Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>The brain like office bui...
Rhythms of Living <ul><li>Sleep & Wakefulness </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeps 16 – 18 hours per day </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep is in...
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome <ul><li>Disorder where a seemingly healthy infant dies in its sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Affects...
Nutrition & Motor Development <ul><li>Malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Having an improper amount & balance of nutrients </li...
Physical Development   <ul><li>Breast Feeding insures proper nourishment </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages to breast feeding:  ...
Early Motor Skills   <ul><li>Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinated Movements of Muscles & Limbs   </li></ul><ul><li>L...
Fine Motor Skills   <ul><li>Reaching & Grasping   </li></ul><ul><li>4 Months Can Reach for Objects  </li></ul><ul><li>requ...
Perception <ul><li>Sight </li></ul><ul><li>Eye, optic nerve, occipital area of brain relatively well-developed at birth   ...
Perception <ul><li>Process by which the brain receives, selects, modifies, & organizes sensory information   </li></ul><ul...
Development of the Senses <ul><li>Visual Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Neonate can see only about 1 foot </li></ul><ul><li>...
The Senses in General <ul><li>An Infant sees only about 1 foot but can perceive depth. </li></ul><ul><li>It sees shapes an...
Piaget’s Theories <ul><li>Basic Principles of Cognitive Development   </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation:   when new experienc...
Information Processing <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Process that determines which sensory information receives addi...
Stages of Cognitive Development   <ul><li>Sensorimotor Thinking   </li></ul><ul><li>Sensorymotor Stage: birth – 2 years </...
Language   <ul><li>Road to Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Perceiving speech: </li></ul><ul><li>Babies can distinguish speech sou...
First Words   +   <ul><li>Language That’s Understood </li></ul><ul><li>First words have a structure borrowed from advanced...
First Words   + <ul><li>Fast Mapping of Words </li></ul><ul><li>Child’s ability to connect new words to referents so rapid...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter 03

3,314 views

Published on

Physical & Cognitive Development in Infancy

Published in: Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,314
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
136
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 03

  1. 1. CHAPTER 3 Physical & Cognitive Development In Infancy
  2. 2. Principles of Physical Growth <ul><li>Cephalocaudal Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Growth patterns are from the head down </li></ul><ul><li>Proximodistal Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Development proceeds from the center of the body outward </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of Hierarchical Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Simple skills develop separately & independently but later are integrated into more complex skills </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of Independence of Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Different body systems grow at different rates </li></ul>
  3. 3. Brazelton Assessment Scale <ul><li>Used to determine infants’ neurological & behavioral responses to their environment </li></ul><ul><li>27 Categories of responses that measure: </li></ul><ul><li>Interactions with others </li></ul><ul><li>Motor behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological control </li></ul><ul><li>Response to stress </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Reflexes <ul><li>Reflex Stimulation Response Developmental Pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Blinking Flash of light, puff Closes both eyes Permanent </li></ul><ul><li>of air </li></ul><ul><li>Babinski Stroke sole of foot Fans out toes, Disappears after 9 months to 1 twists foot year </li></ul><ul><li>Grasping Touch palms of hands Grasps tightly Weakens after 3 months, </li></ul><ul><li>disappears after 1 year </li></ul><ul><li>Moro (Startle) Sudden stimulation Startles, arches back, Disappears after 3 – 4 months </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. loud noise or throws head back, </li></ul><ul><li>being dropped) flings out arms & legs </li></ul><ul><li>then rapidly closes </li></ul><ul><li>Rooting Cheek stroked or Turns head, opens Disappears after 3 – 4 months </li></ul><ul><li>side of mouth mouth, begins </li></ul><ul><li>touched sucking </li></ul><ul><li>Sucking Object touches Sucks automatically Disappears after 3 – 4 months </li></ul><ul><li>mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming Put face down in Makes swimming Disappears after 6 – 7 months </li></ul><ul><li>in water movements </li></ul><ul><li>Stepping Lower feet onto Moves feet as if to Disappears after 3 – 4 months </li></ul><ul><li>flat surface walk </li></ul>
  5. 5. Physical Development <ul><li>Growth of the Body </li></ul><ul><li>Average height & normal height are not the same thing </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition & Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Typical 2-month-old has 40% of body’s energy devoted to growth </li></ul><ul><li>Must consume large number of calories relative to body weight </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 50 calories per pound </li></ul><ul><li>Adult needs 15 – 20 calories per pound </li></ul>
  6. 6. Developing Nervous System <ul><li>Neuron </li></ul><ul><li>Dendrites, Cell Body, Axon, Terminal Buttons, Synapse, Neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Hemispheres, Corpus Callosum, Frontal Cortex </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Developing Brain & Nervous System <ul><li>The Neuron </li></ul><ul><li>Basic component of the Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>Number </li></ul><ul><li>Between 100 & 200 Billion at birth </li></ul><ul><li>Growth rate: 250,000 per minute </li></ul><ul><li>Synaptic pruning </li></ul><ul><li>Myelin </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty tissue covering the axon </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with critical periods </li></ul>
  8. 8. Emerging Brain Structures <ul><li>Neural Plate </li></ul><ul><li>Flat structure that develops in the zygote about 3 weeks after conception </li></ul><ul><li>At 4 weeks it folds to form neural tube that becomes brain & spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Myelin </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty wrap around axon that speeds up neural transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Begins at about 4 months </li></ul><ul><li>Synaptic Pruning </li></ul><ul><li>Synapses begin disappearing </li></ul><ul><li>Language Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Cortex in left hemisphere specializes in language processing early in life, probably by birth </li></ul>
  9. 9. Brain Development <ul><li>Plasticity </li></ul><ul><li>The Degree that the brain is modified by experience </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive Period </li></ul><ul><li>A time in development when the organism is susceptible to environmental influences in relating to some particular facet of development </li></ul><ul><li>Influence on the Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Greater stimulation produces greater growth </li></ul>
  10. 10. Neural Plasticity <ul><li>Extent to Which the Brain is Organized is Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>The brain like office building with rooms designed to be used to meet different needs of the company </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons are created and begin migrating throughout cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemical paths pull them </li></ul><ul><li>A neuron can end up anywhere </li></ul><ul><li>There are no specific genetic instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Brain construction similar in everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Experience changes specifics </li></ul>
  11. 11. Rhythms of Living <ul><li>Sleep & Wakefulness </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeps 16 – 18 hours per day </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep is in fits & starts </li></ul><ul><li>REM Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Brain waves are different than adults </li></ul><ul><li>REM sleep in infants is not associated with dreaming </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome <ul><li>Disorder where a seemingly healthy infant dies in its sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Affects 1 in 1000 infants in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>No apparent cause </li></ul><ul><li>Leading cause of death in children one year </li></ul><ul><li>At risk children: Boys, African-American, low-birthweight, low Apgar scorers, mothers who smoked, certain brain defects, & abused children </li></ul><ul><li>All races, socio-economic levels, & those with no health problems victims </li></ul>
  13. 13. Nutrition & Motor Development <ul><li>Malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Having an improper amount & balance of nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Has negative results </li></ul><ul><li>Slower growth rate </li></ul><ul><li>Lower IQ </li></ul><ul><li>Kwashiorkor </li></ul><ul><li>Marasmus </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Weight greater than 20% above the average for a given height </li></ul>
  14. 14. Physical Development <ul><li>Breast Feeding insures proper nourishment </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages to breast feeding: </li></ul><ul><li>1. immune advantages from mother’s antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>2. less prone to diarrhea & constipation </li></ul><ul><li>3. make transition to solid foods more easily </li></ul><ul><li>4. breast milk can’t be contaminated </li></ul><ul><li>5. formula-fed infants more prone to allergies </li></ul><ul><li>Malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 3 Children Worldwide Under Age 5 Malnourished </li></ul><ul><li>about 20% U.S. children get inadequate iron, & 10% go to bed hungry </li></ul><ul><li>Malnourished develop slower than peers </li></ul><ul><li>Especially damaging during infancy </li></ul><ul><li>Lower IQ, more easily distracted, shorter attention span, inattentive, tire more easily </li></ul>
  15. 15. Early Motor Skills <ul><li>Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinated Movements of Muscles & Limbs </li></ul><ul><li>Locomote: Moving about in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Fine motor skills: Grasping, holding, & manipulating objects </li></ul><ul><li>Locomotion: The Dynamic Systems Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Motor development involves many distinct skills that are organized & reorganized over time to meet the demands of specific tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Posture & Balance are fundamental to walking </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of legs & muscles are important to maintain upright posture </li></ul><ul><li>Stepping </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of weight from one foot to another </li></ul><ul><li>Component skills must be mastered </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Need to judge whether surface is suitable for movement </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinating Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation: Mastery of component skills </li></ul><ul><li>Integration: Combining them in the proper sequence into a coherent, working whole </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to walk demands orchestration of many specific skills </li></ul>
  16. 16. Fine Motor Skills <ul><li>Reaching & Grasping </li></ul><ul><li>4 Months Can Reach for Objects </li></ul><ul><li>requires hand-eye & individual finger coordination </li></ul><ul><li>6 Months Coordinates Both Hands </li></ul><ul><li>1 Year Can Generally Feed Self </li></ul><ul><li>Handedness </li></ul><ul><li>90% Worldwide Right Handed </li></ul><ul><li>Young babies have no preference </li></ul><ul><li>13 months handedness </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics Major Role in Handedness </li></ul>
  17. 17. Perception <ul><li>Sight </li></ul><ul><li>Eye, optic nerve, occipital area of brain relatively well-developed at birth </li></ul><ul><li>Visual acuity </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest pattern that can be distinguished dependably; clarity of vision </li></ul><ul><li>Newborns respond to light & can track moving objects with the eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Cones </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons specialized in the eye for color </li></ul><ul><li>Perceive few colors </li></ul><ul><li>Newborns can differentiate blue from gray & red from green, not yellow from green or yellow from red </li></ul><ul><li>Depth </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Cliff </li></ul><ul><li>At 1 ½ months placing on deep side of cliff heart rate decelerates </li></ul><ul><li>Deceleration occurs when something interesting occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Notices difference between sides of cliff </li></ul><ul><li>Retinal disparity: Difference between left & right eye images </li></ul><ul><li>Used to judge depth cues </li></ul><ul><li>Infants use visual cues and sound to judge depth </li></ul>
  18. 18. Perception <ul><li>Process by which the brain receives, selects, modifies, & organizes sensory information </li></ul><ul><li>Smell & Taste </li></ul><ul><li>Infants respond positively to pleasant smells </li></ul><ul><li>Infants have highly developed sense of taste </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami </li></ul><ul><li>Touch & Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous system can transmit pain </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior in response to pain-provoking stimuli suggests they experience pain </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing is best in range of human speech </li></ul><ul><li>By 4½ months can recognize own name </li></ul><ul><li>Infants can distinguish different pitches </li></ul>
  19. 19. Development of the Senses <ul><li>Visual Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Neonate can see only about 1 foot </li></ul><ul><li>Minutes after birth shows preferences for certain stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Within a few hours prefers mother’s face </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Able to hear prior to birth </li></ul><ul><li>Prefers mother’s voice </li></ul><ul><li>Smell & Taste </li></ul><ul><li>Strong sense of smell & taste </li></ul><ul><li>Pain & Touch </li></ul><ul><li>Painful stimuli produce physical & emotional responses </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Senses in General <ul><li>An Infant sees only about 1 foot but can perceive depth. </li></ul><ul><li>It sees shapes and prefers novel images. </li></ul><ul><li>It recognizes faces and prefers attractive faces over those not attractive. </li></ul><ul><li>An Infant is able to hear from at least the 6 th month in utero. </li></ul><ul><li>It can identify its mother’s voice as well as its own voice. </li></ul><ul><li>It recognizes the sound of another infant/child who is in distress. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Piaget’s Theories <ul><li>Basic Principles of Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation: when new experiences are incorporated into existing schemes; e.g. grasping one thing extends to others </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodation: when schemes are modified based on experience; learns some things are too heavy to lift </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibration & Stages of Cognitive Development: recognition of schemes to return to a state of balance </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation & accommodation usually in balance </li></ul><ul><li>Schemes sometimes need to be adjusted to new experiences </li></ul><ul><li>When balance is upset, disequilibrium occurs and there is a </li></ul><ul><li>need to change </li></ul>
  22. 22. Information Processing <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Process that determines which sensory information receives additional cognitive processing </li></ul><ul><li>Orienting response : fixation on a stimulus & changes in heart rate & brain activity </li></ul><ul><li>Habituation : diminished response to a stimulus as it becomes familiar </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Classical conditioning : a neutral stimulus produces a response that was originally produced by another stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Infants learn that a stimulus is a signal for what will happen next </li></ul><ul><li>Infants form expectations about what will happen in their environment </li></ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning : focus is on relation between consequences of behavior & the likelihood the behavior will occur </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation: watching others to see how they behave </li></ul>
  23. 23. Stages of Cognitive Development <ul><li>Sensorimotor Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Sensorymotor Stage: birth – 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>Birth - 1 month </li></ul><ul><li>Exercises reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>1 - 4 months </li></ul><ul><li>Primary circular reactions: Accidentally produces pleasing event involving body & try to recreate it </li></ul><ul><li>4 – 8 months </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary circular reactions: </li></ul><ul><li>New actions repeated with objects </li></ul><ul><li>8 – 12 months intentional behaviors engaged in </li></ul><ul><li>12 – 18 months </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary circular reactions: </li></ul><ul><li>Repeats old schemes with new objects trying to understand why different objects give different outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>18 – 24 months </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic usage crowning achievement of sensorymotor stage </li></ul>
  24. 24. Language <ul><li>Road to Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Perceiving speech: </li></ul><ul><li>Babies can distinguish speech sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Can hear the entire range of phonemes in all languages </li></ul><ul><li>By 8th month can recognize sound patterns that are heard repeatedly </li></ul><ul><li>Can recognize stressed syllables & sounds in native language </li></ul><ul><li>Infant-directed speech (motherese) helps infants perceive the sounds fundamental to their language </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest sounds: </li></ul><ul><li>Cooing </li></ul><ul><li>Vowel-like sounds (o-o-o-o or a-h-h-h) </li></ul><ul><li>Babbling </li></ul><ul><li>Speechlike sounds that have no meaning (dah or bah) </li></ul>
  25. 25. First Words + <ul><li>Language That’s Understood </li></ul><ul><li>First words have a structure borrowed from advanced babbling </li></ul><ul><li>Generally consists of vowel pairs repeated </li></ul><ul><li>Mama or dada </li></ul><ul><li>Referential style </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabularies that are dominated by words that are names of objects, persons, or actions </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive style </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabularies that include some names but also many social phrases used like single words (“Go away,” “What’d you want?” & “I want it”) </li></ul>
  26. 26. First Words + <ul><li>Fast Mapping of Words </li></ul><ul><li>Child’s ability to connect new words to referents so rapidly that he cannot consider all possible meanings for the new word </li></ul><ul><li>Joint attention </li></ul><ul><li>Parents label objects & children rely on adults’ behavior to interpret the words they hear </li></ul><ul><li>Labeling </li></ul><ul><li>Rules children use to learn new words with unfamiliar word in the presence of objects already known and some not known, unfamiliar word refers to objects not known </li></ul><ul><li>A name refers to the whole object & to all objects of the same type </li></ul><ul><li>If an object already has a name & another name, the new name denotes a subcategory of the original name </li></ul><ul><li>Given many similar category members, a word applied consistently to only one of them is a proper noun </li></ul>

×