Adolescence (Pt 3)


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Personality development in adolescence.

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Adolescence (Pt 3)

  1. 1. Adolescence (Part 3)
  2. 2. Social & Personality Development <ul><li>Self-Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Identity is the important issue </li></ul><ul><li>Able to distinguish between one’s self and others & take others’ views into account </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing one’s self & liking one’s self are two different things </li></ul><ul><li>Liking one’s self is self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Liking one’s self involves seeing one’s self with all your faults and accepting it </li></ul>
  3. 3. Gender Differences in Self-Esteem <ul><li>Factors Determining Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Gender is important in early adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Girls’ self-esteem is lower </li></ul><ul><li>Girls tend to be more concerned about the appearances & social & academic success </li></ul><ul><li>Boys’ attitude is more casual </li></ul><ul><li>Boys are vulnerable to gender stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Boys have problems with sports, rejection by girls, & not measuring up </li></ul>
  4. 4. SES & Race in Self-Esteem <ul><li>Higher SES Have Higher Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly due to status factors </li></ul><ul><li>Race & Ethnicity Play a Role </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice played a major role before </li></ul><ul><li>Today, social movements within a group help build self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Today, more are focusing on aspects of the self in which they excel </li></ul><ul><li>Taking ethnicity & gender into account together produces different results than separately </li></ul>
  5. 5. Identity Formation <ul><li>Identity v. Identity Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Stage where adolescents seek to find what makes them unique & distinct </li></ul><ul><li>They adopt different roles </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion comes by failing to organize around a central, unified core identity </li></ul><ul><li>A good, stable sense of identity is the foundation for future development & choices, esp. marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Social Pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Career or occupation </li></ul><ul><li>The future us now up to them </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on friends & peers for information </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Moratorium </li></ul><ul><li>Period when adolescents take time off from coming adult responsibilities to explore different roles & possibilities </li></ul>
  6. 6. Marcia’s Identity Development <ul><li>Identity Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Gone through a period of crisis & developed relatively firm commitments </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Foreclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Never gone through an identity crisis but has become committed to certain goals </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Moratorium </li></ul><ul><li>Currently going through an identity crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Never had a crisis, is not in one now, & has not formed or established goals </li></ul>
  7. 7. Identity, Race, & Ethnicity <ul><li>Cultural Assimilation Model </li></ul><ul><li>Individual cultural identities should be assimilated into a unified culture </li></ul><ul><li>Pluralistic Society Model </li></ul><ul><li>Society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual features </li></ul><ul><li>Bicultural Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Draw on the cultural identity while integrating into the dominant culture </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Formation & Racial & Ethnic Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Identity formation is more difficult with racial & ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>There are contradictory social values </li></ul><ul><li>A society should be color-blind but opportunities differ for races & ethnic groups </li></ul>
  8. 8. Depression <ul><li>Who is Depressed? </li></ul><ul><li>25% report feeling sad or hopeless for 2 or more weeks in a row so they stop doing normal activities </li></ul><ul><li>Girls experience depression more often than boys </li></ul><ul><li>Girls’ coping skills different than boys’ </li></ul><ul><li>Girls are more apt to turn inward, boys turning outward </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans have higher rates of depression than Whites </li></ul><ul><li>Not supported by studies </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the environment & social factors related to much depression </li></ul>
  9. 9. Suicide <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd major cause of death among 15 – 24 age group </li></ul><ul><li>12.2 suicides per 100,000 adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Girls attempt; boys complete </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in suicides in the last 30 years </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: Depression is a major cause (social & family problems, perfectionism, anxiety over the future, & alcohol & drug abuse </li></ul>
  10. 10. Relationships <ul><li>Changing Family Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking autonomy: control over one’s life </li></ul><ul><li>Parents become frustrated over the increasing autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy slowly grows during adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Changes the relationship with the parents </li></ul><ul><li>The degree of autonomy varies with the number of children & the culture </li></ul>
  11. 11. Family Changes <ul><li>Generation Gap </li></ul><ul><li>The divide between parents & children in attitudes, values, aspirations, & worldview </li></ul><ul><li>The actual “gap” is very narrow </li></ul><ul><li>On social, political, & religious issues parents & adolescents tend to agree </li></ul><ul><li>Most adolescents & their parents get along quite well </li></ul><ul><li>There’s a deep love, affection, & respect for parents </li></ul><ul><li>Most relationships are more positive than negative </li></ul>
  12. 12. Parent/Child Relations <ul><li>Conflicts with Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Most get along with parents most of the time </li></ul><ul><li>There are differences in taste in music, friends, relationships, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The conflict is greater in early adolescence than later </li></ul><ul><li>Problems are due to differing definitions of, & rationales for, appropriate & inappropriate conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Parents begin to realize that the children are growing up </li></ul><ul><li>There’s less conflict in “traditional” pre-industrial cultures </li></ul>
  13. 13. Relations with Peers <ul><li>Social Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing & evaluating opinions, abilities, & physical changes of others </li></ul><ul><li>Reference Group </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of people with whom you compare yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Clique </li></ul><ul><li>Group of from 2 – 12 whose members have frequent social interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Crowd </li></ul><ul><li>Larger than a clique made up of those who share particular characteristics but who may not interact with each other </li></ul>
  14. 14. Gender/Race Relations <ul><li>Gender Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Sex cleavage: Boys hang out with boys & girls with girls in preadolescence </li></ul><ul><li>With puberty, hormonal changes bring more interest in the opposite sex & boys’ & girls’ cliques begin to converge </li></ul><ul><li>Later on, more time is spent with members of the opposite sex </li></ul><ul><li>Race Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Even with desegregation races & ethnicities tend to interact very little </li></ul><ul><li>May be ethnic & racial segregation in classrooms with less minorities in certain classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of contact among students may produce prejudice, both perceived & real </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents who have interacted with other races or ethnicities tend to have friends of different races & ethnicities </li></ul>
  15. 15. Popularity <ul><li>Controversial Adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Those liked by some peers & disliked by others </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected Adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Those actively disliked & whose peers may react to them in an obviously negative manner </li></ul><ul><li>Neglected Adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Those receiving relatively little attention from peers in either positive or negative interactions </li></ul>
  16. 16. Peer Relations <ul><li>Peer Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of one’s peers to conform to their behavior & attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents are highly susceptible to the influence of peers </li></ul><ul><li>What to wear, who do date, movies to see, what group to belong to </li></ul><ul><li>Conformity to peers due to pressure to conform & seek an identity </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately, conform less to peers & parents & develop their own autonomy </li></ul>
  17. 17. Delinquency <ul><li>Undersocialized Delinquents </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents raised with little discipline or with harsh, uncaring parental supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Not socialized appropriately & not taught standards of conduct to regulate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Socialized Delinquents </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents who know & subscribe to the norms of society & who are fairly normal psychologically </li></ul><ul><li>Adhere to social norms </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>16% of all arrests for serious crimes involve a person under 18 years </li></ul><ul><li>Undersocialized delinquents most likely to be diagnosed with attention-deficit disorder as a child & seen as less intelligent </li></ul><ul><li>May also have psychological disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Socialized delinquents are fairly normal psychologically </li></ul><ul><li>Most engage in petty crimes & stop at adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Very influenced by peers & crimes occur in groups </li></ul>
  18. 18. Dating <ul><li>Functions of Dating </li></ul><ul><li>A way to establish intimacy with another person </li></ul><ul><li>Provides entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Prestige (trophy) </li></ul><ul><li>Can assist in developing a sense of self </li></ul><ul><li>Dating in early & middle adolescence isn’t useful in furthering intimacy </li></ul><ul><li>True intimacy comes during later adolescence when dating becomes more serious </li></ul><ul><li>Gays & lesbians may date the opposite sex to fit in </li></ul><ul><li>Culture influences dating patterns </li></ul>
  19. 19. Sexual Relations <ul><li>Masturbation </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual self-stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>By age 15, 80% of boys & 20% of girls report masturbating </li></ul><ul><li>Can still produce guilt feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Now viewed as normal & harmless </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>About 50% of adolescents begin intercourse between 15 & 18 years </li></ul><ul><li>10% are postponing sex </li></ul><ul><li>Double-standard </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible for males, not for females </li></ul><ul><li>For many girls, it is okay with affection </li></ul>
  20. 20. Pregnancy <ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Teen pregnancies have dropped 30% in the last 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>43 of 1000 births is a teen </li></ul><ul><li>Pledges in sex classes are useless </li></ul><ul><li>Teen pregnancies in the U.S. are still 2 – 10 X higher than most other industrialized countries </li></ul><ul><li>Caring for the child generally goes to the mother with little or no help from the father </li></ul>
  21. 21. Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Heterosexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual attraction & behavior with members of the opposite sex </li></ul><ul><li>Homosexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual attraction & behavior with members of the same sex </li></ul><ul><li>Gay: male homosexuals </li></ul><ul><li>Lesbian: female homosexuals </li></ul><ul><li>Bisexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual attraction & behavior with members of either sex </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Identity </li></ul><ul><li>The gender a person believes he or she is psychologically </li></ul>
  22. 22. Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>20% - 25% of male adolescents & 10% of females experiment with homosexuality </li></ul><ul><li>4% - 10% are exclusively homosexual throughout life </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual orientation & gender identity are not related </li></ul><ul><li>The extent to which men & women enact traditional “masculine” & “feminine” behavior is not related to either sexual orientation or gender identity </li></ul><ul><li>Determinates of Sexual Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Determining factors are not clear </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic & biological factors are important </li></ul><ul><li>There are differences in brain structures </li></ul><ul><li>Family & peer environment plays a role </li></ul><ul><li>It develops from a complex interplay of genetics, physiological, psychological, & environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Many adolescent homosexuals are it risk for depression & suicide </li></ul>