Adolescence (Part2)
Piaget <ul><li>Formal Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract thinking using formal logic </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheticodeduc...
Information Processing <ul><li>Information Processing Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks to identify the way that we take in...
Adolescent Thinking <ul><li>Mental Sophistication </li></ul><ul><li>Can think hypothetically </li></ul><ul><li>The store o...
Kohlberg’s Moral Development <ul><li>6 Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Preconventional Morality </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 1 – Desir...
Gilligan’s Moral Development <ul><li>3 Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 1 </li></ul><ul><li>The focus is on what is  practic...
School Performance <ul><li>78% of U.S. High School Students Graduate </li></ul><ul><li>SES Scores </li></ul><ul><li>Middle...
Ethnic/Racial Differences in Performance <ul><li>African American & Hispanic Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Asian Americans...
Part-time Job <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>38% of 15 yr. olds have a regular job </li></ul><ul><li>Money for recre...
Dropping Out <ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>½ million drop out each year </li></ul><ul><li>Earn 42% less than high s...
College <ul><li>Gaining a Degree </li></ul><ul><li>40% starting college get a degree </li></ul><ul><li>50% of those not co...
Gender/Racial Barriers to Achievement <ul><li>Stereotyping in Academics </li></ul><ul><li>Women seem to accept social ster...
Choosing a Career <ul><li>3 Stages of Career Choosing </li></ul><ul><li>Fantasy period </li></ul><ul><li>Period of life wh...
Personality Types & Careers <ul><li>Realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Down-to-earth, practical problem solvers, but lack social ...
Women’s Careers <ul><li>Communal Professions </li></ul><ul><li>Occupations associated with relationships </li></ul><ul><li...
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Adolescence (Pt 2)

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Cognitive growth in Adolescence

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Adolescence (Pt 2)

  1. 1. Adolescence (Part2)
  2. 2. Piaget <ul><li>Formal Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract thinking using formal logic </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheticodeductive reasoning; </li></ul><ul><li>Start with a general theory about what produces a particular outcome then deduce explanations for specific situations in which that particular outcome is seen </li></ul><ul><li>Can begin with abstract possibilities & move to the concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Propositional thought: </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning that uses abstract logic in the absence of concrete examples </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a gradual unfolding </li></ul><ul><li>Culture influences the operations </li></ul>
  3. 3. Information Processing <ul><li>Information Processing Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks to identify the way that we take in, use, & store information </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognition </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge that people have about their own thinking processes & their ability to monitor them </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescent Egocentricism </li></ul><ul><li>Teen’s view that everyone is as interested in them as they are </li></ul><ul><li>Imaginary Audience </li></ul><ul><li>A teen sees behavior as constantly being watched by others, esp. peers </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Fable </li></ul><ul><li>The idea that one’s feelings and experiences are unique & no one else has them </li></ul>
  4. 4. Adolescent Thinking <ul><li>Mental Sophistication </li></ul><ul><li>Can think hypothetically </li></ul><ul><li>The store of knowledge increases as the memory enlarges </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement of intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Egocentricism </li></ul><ul><li>Constructs elaborate scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to become self-absorbed </li></ul><ul><li>Egocentricism, imaginary audience, personal fable construction </li></ul>
  5. 5. Kohlberg’s Moral Development <ul><li>6 Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Preconventional Morality </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 1 – Desire to avoid punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 – Desire for reward </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional Morality </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 – Have respect for others </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4 – Maintaining social order </li></ul><ul><li>Postconventional Morality </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 5 – Respect for individual rights & laws </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 6 – Universal ethical morality </li></ul><ul><li>Further research shows moral reasoning depends on the situation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Gilligan’s Moral Development <ul><li>3 Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 1 </li></ul><ul><li>The focus is on what is practical & best for one’s self </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The focus is on self- sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 </li></ul><ul><li>The focus is on the idea that hurting one’s self or others is immoral </li></ul>
  7. 7. School Performance <ul><li>78% of U.S. High School Students Graduate </li></ul><ul><li>SES Scores </li></ul><ul><li>Middle- & high-SES students score higher grades on standardized tests of achievement & complete more years of education </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty contributes to lower scores, less years of education, etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ethnic/Racial Differences in Performance <ul><li>African American & Hispanic Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Asian Americans performance higher </li></ul><ul><li>Difference in part to SES & their view of education </li></ul><ul><li>Education is less important than getting a job </li></ul><ul><li>Hard work in school has no payoff </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs Regarding Academic Success </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans more apt to view success as the result of external causes, luck, or social biases </li></ul><ul><li>They have no control over their success </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescent beliefs about the consequences of not doing will may also contribute to the differences in school performance </li></ul>
  9. 9. Part-time Job <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>38% of 15 yr. olds have a regular job </li></ul><ul><li>Money for recreation & clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace skills learned </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the nature of work & specific employment settings </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Low on transferable skills </li></ul><ul><li>Can affect school performance </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents the participation in extracurricular activities </li></ul>
  10. 10. Dropping Out <ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>½ million drop out each year </li></ul><ul><li>Earn 42% less than high school grads </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment rate for drop outs is 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Males drop out more than females </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic & African Americans are more likely to drop out </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty plays a major role in who completes high school </li></ul>
  11. 11. College <ul><li>Gaining a Degree </li></ul><ul><li>40% starting college get a degree </li></ul><ul><li>50% of those not completing eventually get a degree </li></ul><ul><li>Gender & College </li></ul><ul><li>Women tend toward education & social sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Men tend toward engineering, physical sciences, & mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Professors (male & female) treat males & females differently </li></ul><ul><li>Call on & make more eye contact with males than females </li></ul><ul><li>Males tend to receive more positive reinforcement </li></ul>
  12. 12. Gender/Racial Barriers to Achievement <ul><li>Stereotyping in Academics </li></ul><ul><li>Women seem to accept social stereotypes about themselves </li></ul><ul><li>That’s the reason they take less math & science classes </li></ul><ul><li>They tend to be more concerned about failure </li></ul><ul><li>Women are more vulnerable to stereotype expectations about success </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic & African Americans may be vulnerable as well </li></ul>
  13. 13. Choosing a Career <ul><li>3 Stages of Career Choosing </li></ul><ul><li>Fantasy period </li></ul><ul><li>Period of life when careers choices are made solely on the basis of what sounds appealing </li></ul><ul><li>Tentative period </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning to think practically about jobs & their requirements that may fit abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic period </li></ul><ul><li>Narrowing down choices to a few alternatives & eventually committing to one </li></ul>
  14. 14. Personality Types & Careers <ul><li>Realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Down-to-earth, practical problem solvers, but lack social skills </li></ul><ul><li>Make good farmers, laborers, & truck drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual </li></ul><ul><li>Oriented toward the theoretical & abstract, not particularly good with people </li></ul><ul><li>Math & science careers </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Good verbal skills & interpersonal relations </li></ul><ul><li>Salespersons, teachers, & counselors </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer highly structured tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Clerks, secretaries, & bank tellers </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprising </li></ul><ul><li>Risk takers & take-charge types </li></ul><ul><li>Managers & politicians </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic </li></ul><ul><li>Use art to express themselves, prefer art to interaction with people </li></ul><ul><li>Anything to do with art </li></ul>
  15. 15. Women’s Careers <ul><li>Communal Professions </li></ul><ul><li>Occupations associated with relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, considered the best profession for women </li></ul><ul><li>Agentic Professions </li></ul><ul><li>Professions associated with getting things done </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, considered the best profession for men </li></ul><ul><li>Earning Power </li></ul><ul><li>¾ of a man’s earnings </li></ul><ul><li>Glass ceiling </li></ul><ul><li>Invisible barrier in an organization that prevents one from being promoted beyond a certain level due to discrimination </li></ul>

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