2011 ch 3


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  • DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid): Molecular structure, shaped like a double helix that contains coded genetic information
  • Dominant: The gene’s feature will appear each time the gene is present Recessive: The gene’s feature will appear only if it is paired with another recessive gene
  • Stage Theorist: all children passed through a set series of stages during their intellectual development; like Freud Assimilation Application of existing mental patterns to new situations Accommodation Existing mental patterns are changed to accommodate new information or experiences
  • Zone of Proximal Development Range of tasks a child cannot master alone even though they are close to having the necessary mental skills; they need guidance from a more capable partner in order to complete the task Scaffolding Adjusting instruction so it is responsive to a beginner’s behavior and so it supports the beginners efforts to understand a problem or gain a mental skill
  • Optimism, hope, and an interest in the future Gratitude and forgiveness; an ability to focus on what is good in life Empathy; an ability to share the feelings of others and see the world through their eyes Connection with others; an ability to reach out, to give and receive social support
  • 2011 ch 3

    1. 2. Chapter 3: Human Development
    2. 3. Developmental Psychology <ul><li>The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heredity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction of heredity and environment </li></ul></ul>
    3. 4. Heredity <ul><li>“ Nature” </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic transmission of physical and psychological characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contains coded genetic information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized into 46 chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>23 from each parent </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 5. Heredity <ul><li>Genes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recessive </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 7. Environment <ul><li>Prenatal Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental affects on fetus can lead to birth defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teratogens – anything that can cause defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illness of mother (syphilis, HIV) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation, X-rays </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals (PCBs, lead, pesticides) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs (cocaine, nicotine, alcohol) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 8. Prenatal Development <ul><li>Teratogens (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal Alcohol Syndrome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by repeated heavy drinking during pregnancy </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 9. Prenatal Development <ul><li>Teratogens (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco/Nicotine; marijuana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces oxygen to fetus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased risk of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Miscarriage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Premature delivery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Underweight babies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infant death </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower language and mental ability scores </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 10. Environment <ul><li>Sensitive Period: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A period of increased sensitivity to environmental influences; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time when certain events must occur for normal development to take place </li></ul></ul>
    9. 11. Environment <ul><li>Deprivation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of normal stimulation, nutrition, comfort, or love </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often induced by poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negatively impacts development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enrichment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environments that are novel, complex, and intellectually stimulating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positively impacts development </li></ul></ul>
    10. 12. Reciprocal Influences <ul><li>Temperament Categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The physical “core” of personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easy Children: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>40%; relaxed and agreeable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult Children: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10%; moody, intense, easily angered </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slow-to-Warm-Up Children: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15%; restrained, unexpressive, shy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remaining Children: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not fit into any specific category </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 13. Newborn Reflexes <ul><li>Grasping Reflex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place an object in an infant’s palm, the baby will grasp it automatically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rooting Reflex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightly touch an infant’s cheek, the baby will turn toward the object & attempt to nurse; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>helps infant find bottle or breast </li></ul></ul>
    12. 14. The Reflexes <ul><li>Reflex Stimulation Response Developmental Pattern </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Blinking Flash of light, Puff Closes both eyes Permanent </li></ul><ul><li>of air </li></ul><ul><li>Babinski Stroke sole of foot Fans out toes, Disappears after 9 months to 1 twists foot year </li></ul><ul><li>Grasping Touch palms of hands Grasps tightly Weakens after 3 months, </li></ul><ul><li>disappears after 1 year </li></ul><ul><li>Moro (Startle) Sudden stimulation Startles, arches back, Disappears after 3 – 4 months </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. loud noise or throws head back, </li></ul><ul><li>being dropped) flings out arms & legs </li></ul><ul><li>then rapidly closes </li></ul><ul><li>Rooting Cheek stroked or Turns head, opens Disappears after 3 – 4 months </li></ul><ul><li>side of mouth mouth, begins </li></ul><ul><li>touched sucking </li></ul><ul><li>Stepping Lower feet onto Moves feet as if to Disappears after 3 – 4 months </li></ul><ul><li>flat surface walk </li></ul><ul><li>Sucking Object touches Sucks automatically Disappears after 3 – 4 months </li></ul><ul><li>mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming Put face down in Makes swimming Disappears after 6 – 7 months </li></ul><ul><li>in water movements </li></ul>
    13. 15. Physical Growth & Development <ul><li>The Cephalocaudal Pattern </li></ul><ul><li>The greatest growth always occurs at the top of the head with physical growth in size, weight, and feature differentiation gradually working from top to bottom. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory and motor development proceed according to the cephalocaudal pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>The Proximodistal Pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Growth starts in the center of the body and moves toward the extremities. </li></ul><ul><li>An example is the early maturation of muscular control of the trunk and arms, as compared with that of the hands and fingers. </li></ul>
    14. 16. Newborn Emotional Development <ul><li>Infants express excitement first </li></ul><ul><li>Full range of emotions by age 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Social Smile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smiling elicited by social stimuli such a seeing a parent’s face or object of interest </li></ul></ul>
    15. 18. Newborn Social Development <ul><li>Attachment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close emotional bond between infants and caregivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitive period during first year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation Anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crying and signs of fear when a child is left alone or is with a stranger; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>generally appears around 8-12 months </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Severe difficulty may be separation anxiety disorder </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 19. Newborn Social Development <ul><li>Attachment Quality (Mary Ainsworth) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stable and positive emotional bond; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>upset by mother’s absence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insecure-Avoidant: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency to avoid reunion with parent or caregiver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insecure-Ambivalent: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to be with parent or caregiver but some resistance to being reunited </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 20. <ul><li>Authoritarian Parenting </li></ul><ul><li>A restrictive, punitive style in which the child must follow instructions and respect work and effort. Unexplained spankings may be frequent in order to enforce rigid rules. Anger may be frequently shown. </li></ul><ul><li>Children of authoritarian parenting are unhappy, fearful and anxious when comparing themselves with others. They fail to initiate activities and tend toward social incompetence. </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritative Parenting </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging, supportive and nurtures the child to be independent but still places limits and controls on actions. Much verbal give-and-take. Expects mature, independent, age-appropriate behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Children are often cheerful, self-controlled, self reliant, achievement oriented and socially competent. </li></ul><ul><li>Permissive Parenting </li></ul><ul><li>* Permissive Indulgent Parenting : </li></ul><ul><li>Highly involved with children with few demands or controls. View is that warm involvement and few restrictions produces a creative, confident child. </li></ul><ul><li>Children are socially incompetent, lacking self-control, aggressive, domineering, non-compliant with few peer interactions. </li></ul><ul><li>* Permissive Indifferent Parenting : </li></ul><ul><li>Parents are very uninvolved with the child. </li></ul><ul><li>Children are socially incompetent, lack self-control, don’t handle independence well, have low self-esteem, are immature, and tend to be alienated from the family. As adolescents, they tend to show patterns of delinquency and truancy. </li></ul>Parenting Styles
    18. 21. Language Development <ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>B.F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>Language is learned through conditioning procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistics </li></ul><ul><li>Noam Chomsky </li></ul><ul><li>Language is pre-wired in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>There’s a Language Acquisition Device (LAD) already in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Age Language Milestones </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Birth Crying </li></ul><ul><li>1 – 2 Months Cooing Begins </li></ul><ul><li>6 Months Babbling Begins </li></ul><ul><li>8 – 12 Months Use Gestures (Showing & Pointing) Comprehension of Words </li></ul><ul><li>13 Months First Word Spoken </li></ul><ul><li>18 Months Vocabulary Spurt Starts </li></ul><ul><li>18 – 24 Months Uses 2 Word Utterances; Rapid Expansion of Understanding of Words </li></ul>
    19. 22. Language Development: Roots of Language <ul><li>Noam Chomsky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May underestimate importance of learning and social context </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parents teach infants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>language rhythms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn taking </li></ul></ul>
    20. 23. Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget’s Theory <ul><li>Jean Piaget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed that children pass through stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on observations of own kids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking changes through two processes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodation </li></ul></ul></ul>Jean Piaget–philosopher, psychologist, and keen observer of children.
    21. 24. Piaget <ul><li>Important Concepts: Schema - A mental model of an event, object, or action; a mental map. </li></ul><ul><li> Assimilation - Fitting new information into what is already known. </li></ul><ul><li> Accommodation - Refining the data into the current schema. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage Developmental Patterns </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory-Motor Stage Gradual development of the capability to coordinate sensations and perceptions with physical </li></ul><ul><li>0 – 2 years actions. Progression is from reflexive actions to symbolic activities to the ability to separate the self from the objects in the environment. Object permanence develops. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-operational Stage Characterized by the acquisition of language, the growth of the use of symbols, and a limited </li></ul><ul><li>2 – 7 years kind of logical thinking. Preconceptual thinking develops (the ability to deal with things individually but not as a group). Egocentricism develops. </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete Operations Characterized by the need to stabilize thoughts in concrete events. The ability to perform </li></ul><ul><li>7 – 12 years intellectual operations relating to concrete events (e.g. ordering objects by number, size, and class). Conservation develops. </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Operations Characterized by the ability to think about both concrete and abstract events, and the ability to </li></ul><ul><li>12+ years formulate and test hypotheses to solve problems. Can function purely on the symbolic, abstract level. The ability to used abstract symbols develops. Most people never reach this stage. </li></ul>
    22. 25. Cognitive Development: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory <ul><li>Lev Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s cognitive development is heavily influenced by social and cultural factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Children need to learn skills and values </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s thinking develops through dialogues with more capable persons </li></ul><ul><li>Zone of Proximal Development </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding </li></ul>
    23. 26. A d o l e s c e n c e <ul><li>The sexual maturation period ending childhood and beginning adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Primary and secondary sexual characteristics develop </li></ul><ul><li>Many don’t know what to expect when the changes occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological reactions differ between those going into puberty early and those going in late. </li></ul>
    24. 27. Changes in Boys & Girls <ul><li>Variations of Physical Changes at Puberty </li></ul><ul><li>Girls Boys </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics Age of Occurrence Characteristics Age of Occurrence </li></ul><ul><li>Breasts Grow 8 – 13 Years Testes & Scrotal </li></ul><ul><li>Sac Grow 10 – 13 Years </li></ul><ul><li>Pubic Hair Develops 8 – 14 Years Pubic Hair Develops 10 – 15 Years </li></ul><ul><li>The Body Grows 9.5 – 14.5 Years The Body Grows 10.5 – 16 Years </li></ul><ul><li>Menarche Occurs 10 – 16.5 Years Penis Growth 11 – 14.5 Years </li></ul><ul><li>Underarm Hair Around 2 Years Underarm & Facial Around 2 Years </li></ul><ul><li>after Pubic Hair Hair after Pubic Hair </li></ul><ul><li>Oil/Sweat Glands Around the time of Oil/Sweat Glands Around the time of </li></ul><ul><li>Underarm Hair Underarm Hair </li></ul><ul><li>Voice Changes Around the same </li></ul><ul><li>(Larynx Grows) as the Penis </li></ul>
    25. 28. Adolescence & Young Adulthood: Search For Identity <ul><li>Questioning “Who Am I?” </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by ethnic heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Must resolve their role(s) in society </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration of morals, values, politics, social relationships, etc. </li></ul>
    26. 29. Personality & Social Development <ul><li>A Period of “Storm & Strife?” </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Identity vs. Identity Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Achievement – gone through a crisis & developed relatively firm commitments . </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Foreclosure – never had a crisis but has become committed to certain goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Moratorium – currently going through a crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Diffusion – never went through a crisis, isn’t in one, and hasn’t formed any commitments or established any goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems in Adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Depression & Suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Violence </li></ul>
    27. 30. Moral Development <ul><li>Kohlberg refined Piaget’s stages of Moral Realism and Moral Autonomy. </li></ul><ul><li>Level I: Preconventional Level Stage 1 – Fear of Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>(Ages 4-10) Stage 2 – Self-interest and Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Level II: Conventional Level Stage 3 – Desire to Please Others </li></ul><ul><li> (Ages 10-13) Stage 4 – Respect for Authority & Social Order </li></ul><ul><li>Level III: Postconventional Level Stage 5 – Respect for Individual Rights & (After Age 13 at Young Laws </li></ul><ul><li> Adulthood or Never) Stage 6 – Universal Ethical Principles </li></ul>
    28. 31. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory <ul><li>Erik Erikson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages of development throughout the lifespan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each stage has psychosocial dilemma or “crisis” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful resolution = healthy development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsuccessful resolution = stunted development </li></ul></ul>
    29. 32. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory <ul><li>Stage One: Trust versus Mistrust (Birth-1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children are completely dependent on others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trust: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established when babies given adequate warmth, touching, love, and physical care </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mistrust: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by inadequate or unpredictable care and by cold, indifferent, and rejecting parents </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 33. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory <ul><li>Stage Two: Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt (1-3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Doing things for themselves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shame: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overprotective or ridiculing parents may cause children to doubt abilities and feel shameful about their actions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 34. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory <ul><li>Stage Three: Initiative versus Guilt (3-5) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parents reinforce initiative by giving children freedom to play, use imagination, and ask questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guilt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May occur if parents criticize, prevent play, or discourage a child’s questions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 35. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory <ul><li>Stage Four: Industry versus Inferiority (6-12) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when child is praised for productive activities such as painting, reading, and studying </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferiority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs if child’s efforts are regarded as messy, inadequate, or childish </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 36. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory <ul><li>Stage Five (Adolescence): Identity versus Role Confusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For adolescents; problems answering, “Who am I?” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role Confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when adolescents are unsure of where they are going and who they are </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 37. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory <ul><li>Stage Six (Young Adulthood): Intimacy versus Isolation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to care about others and to share experiences with them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling alone and uncared for in life </li></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 38. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory <ul><li>Stage Seven (Middle Adulthood): Generativity versus Stagnation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interest in guiding the next generation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stagnation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When one is only concerned with one’s own needs and comforts </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 39. Middle and Late Adulthood: Midlife Crisis <ul><li>“ Midcourse correction” is more common </li></ul><ul><li>Involves reworking old identities, achieving goals, finding one’s own truths, preparing for old age. </li></ul><ul><li>May serve as a “wake-up call” and opportunity for personal growth </li></ul>
    37. 40. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory <ul><li>Stage Eight (Late adulthood): Integrity versus Despair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-respect; developed when people have lived richly and responsibly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when previous life events are viewed with regret; experiences heartache and remorse </li></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 41. Middle and Late Adulthood <ul><li>Well-being in adulthood has six elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive relations with others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental mastery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A purpose in life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued personal growth </li></ul></ul>
    39. 42. Middle and Late Adulthood: Old Age <ul><li>Common myths regarding aging exist </li></ul><ul><li>You are most likely to stay mentally sharp in old age if: </li></ul><ul><li>1. You remain healthy. </li></ul><ul><li>2. You live in a favorable environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulating occupation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Above-average income </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intact family </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 43. Middle and Late Adulthood: Old Age <ul><li>Staying mentally sharp in old age (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. You are involved in intellectually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulating activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. You have a flexible personality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. You are married to a smart spouse. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. You maintain your perceptual processing speed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. You were satisfied with your accomplishments in midlife. </li></ul></ul>
    41. 44. Middle and Late Adulthood: Old Age <ul><li>Successful Aging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimism, hope, and interest in future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gratitude and forgiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection with others </li></ul></ul>
    42. 45. Middle and Late Adulthood: Old Age <ul><li>Fluid abilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abilities requiring speed or rapid learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradually lost with age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crystallized abilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned knowledge and skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve with age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wisdom, expertise can compensate for changes in mental quickness </li></ul>