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Brain and Behavior Chapter 2
The Basic Structure of the Nervous System <ul><li>The Neuron </li></ul><ul><li>Dendrites </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Body </li>...
The Nerve Impulse:  Saltatory Conduction <ul><li>Some axons covered with myelin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaps in myelin allow...
Synapses and Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Synapse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microscopic “gap” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neurotransmi...
Synapses and Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Over 100 different neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><li>Some substances mimic neurot...
Synapses and Neurotransmitters: Neural Regulators   <ul><li>Neuropeptides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not carry messages dire...
Neural Networks   <ul><li>Several neurons synapse on another neuron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined messages determine acti...
Neural Networks <ul><li>Neuroplasticity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity of the brain to change in response to experience </...
The Nervous System <ul><li>Central Nervous System (CNS)   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain and spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Organization of the Nervous System Nervous System Central Nervous System (Processes, interprets & Stores information; issu...
Neurogenesis <ul><li>Production of new brain cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originate from deep inside brain </li></ul></ul><...
The Brain The Brain contains between 100 Billion & 1 Trillion Neurons with more than 1000 Synapses per Neuron.
Cerebral Cortex   <ul><li>Looks like a wrinkled walnut </li></ul><ul><li>Outer layer of the cerebrum </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Beginning at the Top <ul><li>Left Hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>The Analytic Hemisphere. Dominant in most people. Interpret...
Corpus Callosum <ul><li>The fibers connecting the left and right hemispheres of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Contralateral...
The Central Core <ul><li>The Hindbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>The Medulla, the Pons, and the Cer...
The Limbic System <ul><li>Considered the “Seat of the Emotions” </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus ...
The Limbic System <ul><li>Considered the “Seat of the Emotions” </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus ...
 
Working Memory; Word & Speech Perception (Left); Visual & Auditory Words; Associates Words;  Analysis & Meanings of Items;...
The Brain/Computer Connection <ul><li>The Computer </li></ul><ul><li>Operates Sequentially. </li></ul><ul><li>Has Open and...
The Endocrine System <ul><li>The Major Glands </li></ul><ul><li>Called “the glands of personality” in the early 20 th  cen...
Pineal Gland <ul><li>Secretion: Melatonin </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: Reproduction & Sleep-Wake Cycles </li></ul><ul><li>...
Pituitary Gland <ul><li>Secretions: </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior Lobe: Oxytocin, Vasopressin, & Antidiuretic Hormone </li><...
Thyroid Gland <ul><li>Secretions: Thyroxin & Triiodothyronine </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates Metabolism </li></ul>
Parathyroid Gland <ul><li>Secretion: Parathyroid Hormone </li></ul><ul><li>Controls Calcium Levels </li></ul><ul><li>High ...
Adrenal Glands <ul><li>Secretions: Epinephrine & Norepinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates Energy Levels & Electrolite & ...
Pancreas <ul><li>Secretions: Insulin, Glucagon, & Somatostatin </li></ul><ul><li>Controls Blood Sugar & Glucose Metabolism...
Reproductive Glands <ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>Secretions: Estrogen, Progestrone, & Androstenedione </li></ul><ul><...
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2011 ch 2

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This chapter discusses some of the latest research in neuroscience and human behavior. A general discussion of the different parts of the brain and their general functions is included.

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2011 ch 2

  1. 2. Brain and Behavior Chapter 2
  2. 3. The Basic Structure of the Nervous System <ul><li>The Neuron </li></ul><ul><li>Dendrites </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Body </li></ul><ul><li>Axon Hillock </li></ul><ul><li>Axon </li></ul><ul><li>Nodes of Ranvier </li></ul><ul><li>Myelin Sheath </li></ul><ul><li>Axon Terminals </li></ul><ul><li>Synaptic Vesicles </li></ul><ul><li>Synapse </li></ul><ul><li>Glial Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Myelination </li></ul>
  3. 4. The Nerve Impulse: Saltatory Conduction <ul><li>Some axons covered with myelin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaps in myelin allow action potential to “leap” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speeds transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Damage to myelin leads to paralysis, numbness, weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., Multiple Sclerosis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Synapses and Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Synapse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microscopic “gap” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitters (NTs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals in the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Released when action potential reaches tips of axon terminals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross synapse to attach to receptor sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes inhibition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes excitation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Synapses and Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Over 100 different neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><li>Some substances mimic neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cocaine  dopamine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some substances block neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curare  acetylcholine </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Synapses and Neurotransmitters: Neural Regulators <ul><li>Neuropeptides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not carry messages directly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate activities of other neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endorphins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Released by pituitary gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help to relieve pain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enkephalins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relieve pain and stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to endorphins </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Neural Networks <ul><li>Several neurons synapse on another neuron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined messages determine action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If excitatory messages exceed inhibitory. messages, neuron fires </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If inhibitory messages exceed excitatory messages, no action potential. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Neural Networks <ul><li>Neuroplasticity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity of the brain to change in response to experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New synapses form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unused synapses are pruned </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. The Nervous System <ul><li>Central Nervous System (CNS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain and spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nervous system beyond the CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains neurilemma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tunnels used by damaged fibers for repair </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Organization of the Nervous System Nervous System Central Nervous System (Processes, interprets & Stores information; issues Orders to muscles, glands & organs) Peripheral Nervous System (Transmits information to & from the CNS) Brain Spinal Cord (Controls the brain & peripheral nerves) Somatic Nervous System (Controls skeletal muscles) Autonomic Nervous System (Regulates glands, blood Vessels & internal organs) Sympathetic Nervous System (Mobilizes body for action, Energy output; fight-or- Flight) Parasympathetic Nervous System (Conserves energy, Maintains a quiet state) Afferent Pathways (Go to CNS) Efferent Pathways (From CNS)
  11. 12. Neurogenesis <ul><li>Production of new brain cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originate from deep inside brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move to surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link up with other neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New hope for brain damage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inject immature cells into damaged site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constraint-induced movement therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug therapy </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. The Brain The Brain contains between 100 Billion & 1 Trillion Neurons with more than 1000 Synapses per Neuron.
  13. 14. Cerebral Cortex <ul><li>Looks like a wrinkled walnut </li></ul><ul><li>Outer layer of the cerebrum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gray matter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corticalization </li></ul>
  14. 15. Beginning at the Top <ul><li>Left Hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>The Analytic Hemisphere. Dominant in most people. Interprets </li></ul><ul><li>actions, moods, & thought </li></ul><ul><li>processes. Constructs </li></ul><ul><li>theories about actions & </li></ul><ul><li>feelings, & tries to bring </li></ul><ul><li>order & unity to our </li></ul><ul><li>conscious lives. It is </li></ul><ul><li>specialized for language </li></ul><ul><li>in 95% of right-handed & </li></ul><ul><li>75% of left-handed. Makes </li></ul><ul><li>causal inferences. Solves problems via established methods & well-ordered plans. </li></ul><ul><li>Right Hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>The Synthetic Hemisphere. Specialized in facial recognition. Has its own consciousness. Perceives </li></ul><ul><li>melodies, patterns, & analyzes </li></ul><ul><li>nonverbal patterns. Judges </li></ul><ul><li>grammatical correctness of a </li></ul><ul><li>sentence. It is holistic and </li></ul><ul><li>has limited language skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Has a larger volume of an </li></ul><ul><li>“ association cortex” for </li></ul><ul><li>complex information pro- </li></ul><ul><li>cessing. It makes leaps of insight. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Corpus Callosum <ul><li>The fibers connecting the left and right hemispheres of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Contralateral Control </li></ul><ul><li>The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>What purpose does Contralateral Control serve? </li></ul>
  16. 17. The Central Core <ul><li>The Hindbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>The Medulla, the Pons, and the Cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>The Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>The Thalamus, the Hypothalamus, and the Reticular Formation </li></ul>
  17. 18. The Limbic System <ul><li>Considered the “Seat of the Emotions” </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocampus </li></ul><ul><li>Olfactory Bulb </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala </li></ul>
  18. 19. The Limbic System <ul><li>Considered the “Seat of the Emotions” </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocampus </li></ul><ul><li>Olfactory Bulb </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala </li></ul>
  19. 21. Working Memory; Word & Speech Perception (Left); Visual & Auditory Words; Associates Words; Analysis & Meanings of Items; Self-Analysis; Object Identity; Recognizes Facial Features; Action Plans Encodes, Stores, & Recalls Sequences; Processes Serial Order Information Within the Context of a Motor Task; Recognizes & Remembers Sequence of Events in Time. Receives Sensory Input from the Joints, Muscles, Bones, Skin, Touch, Pressure, Pain, & Internal Organs Attention to Details; Visual & Auditory Words; Discriminates Familiar & Un- familiar Stimuli; STM for Abstract Symbols; Sentence Memory; Visual Orienting; Concentration; Shifting of Attention Organizes Visual Information; Activates &Processes Color, Shape, &Motion; Creates Visual Images; Maps & Analyzes Visual Information; Processes Visual Words Listening to Words; Working Memory; Processes Words Visually & Auditorially; Visual Computation & Motion; Primary Auditory Cortex; Monitors Speech; Generates Verbs; Speech Output Word Production & Grammatical Processing; Semantic Analysis; Motor Patterns for Speech Production Understanding & Expression of Language; Listening to Words; Semantic Analysis & Interpretation The Cerebral Cortex The Cerebral Cortex is the outer &quot;Gray Matter&quot; & the &quot;Association Areas.&quot;
  20. 22. The Brain/Computer Connection <ul><li>The Computer </li></ul><ul><li>Operates Sequentially. </li></ul><ul><li>Has Open and Closed Gates. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes information very quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>Components of the computer are reliable but removing 1 or 2 can disrupt processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Each gate receives a single input and sends that input on. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizes only precise input. </li></ul><ul><li>The Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Operates sequentially and in parallel. </li></ul><ul><li>Has Open, Closed, and Almost Gates. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes information slowly. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons are somewhat unreliable, but deletion of quite a few is not likely to make a major difference in behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons receive input from thousands of other neurons and connects to thousands of other neurons. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizes patterns. </li></ul>
  21. 23. The Endocrine System <ul><li>The Major Glands </li></ul><ul><li>Called “the glands of personality” in the early 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid Gland </li></ul><ul><li>Parathyroid Glands </li></ul><ul><li>Pineal Gland </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Pituitary Gland </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior & Anterior </li></ul><ul><li>Gonads </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal Glands </li></ul>
  22. 24. Pineal Gland <ul><li>Secretion: Melatonin </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: Reproduction & Sleep-Wake Cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Low Melatonin: Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>High Melatonin: Decreased Motor Activity, Fatigue, & Lower Body Temperature </li></ul>
  23. 25. Pituitary Gland <ul><li>Secretions: </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior Lobe: Oxytocin, Vasopressin, & Antidiuretic Hormone </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior Lobe: Hormones Include Thyroid-stimulating Hormone, ACTH, FSH, & Prolactin </li></ul><ul><li>Affects growth and the other glands </li></ul>
  24. 26. Thyroid Gland <ul><li>Secretions: Thyroxin & Triiodothyronine </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates Metabolism </li></ul>
  25. 27. Parathyroid Gland <ul><li>Secretion: Parathyroid Hormone </li></ul><ul><li>Controls Calcium Levels </li></ul><ul><li>High Calcium Levels: </li></ul><ul><li>Low Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Irritability </li></ul><ul><li>Forgetfulness </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased Sex Drive </li></ul>
  26. 28. Adrenal Glands <ul><li>Secretions: Epinephrine & Norepinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates Energy Levels & Electrolite & Fluid Balance, Kidney & Sexual Function </li></ul><ul><li>High Epinephrine: </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Excess Sweating </li></ul><ul><li>Tachychardia </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety & Nervous Shaking </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Weight Loss </li></ul>
  27. 29. Pancreas <ul><li>Secretions: Insulin, Glucagon, & Somatostatin </li></ul><ul><li>Controls Blood Sugar & Glucose Metabolism & Digestive Secretions </li></ul>
  28. 30. Reproductive Glands <ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>Secretions: Estrogen, Progestrone, & Androstenedione </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Oogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Testes </li></ul><ul><li>Secretions: Testosterone & Other Androgens </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Spermatogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Low Testosterone: Decreases Sex Drive </li></ul><ul><li>High Testosterone: Heightened Bisexuality </li></ul>

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