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TECHNOLOGY, KNOWLEDGE  & SOCIETY , 2005   Alexandra Bal   Maison des Sciences de l’Homme de Paris Nord, France New Media P...
Introduction <ul><li>Many claim that information and communication technologies (ICT) have the potential to improve the qu...
Post-industrial societal model <ul><li>Learning becomes an economic growth factor  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The economy is  b...
Skill development <ul><li>Develop new types of  human  and  cultural  capital </li></ul><ul><li>“  (…) it is clear that  e...
Education  has to adapt <ul><li>Advance personalized  learning skills that increase new individual aptitudes : </li></ul><...
The constructivism framework <ul><li>Since constructivist practices emphasize the enhancement of  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a ...
Technology as a solution <ul><li>ICT are seen as a means to improve the quality of education :  Can facilitate the introdu...
The paradoxes of practice <ul><li>1) P edagogical principles  are  not often  present in new higher education large scale ...
A broader context for innovation <ul><li>If the  educational process is not central to these innovations,  w hat is? The s...
Socio-economic analysis of higher education innovation   <ul><li>Incorporat ing  actors’ strategies  to the analysis of ed...
1. Actors strategies <ul><li>Actors with diverging   objectives  need  to collaborate to  evaluate  potential implementati...
2. Industrialisation of education <ul><li>Industrialisation = a systematic  rationalisation of production practices  aimed...
Industrial models specific to education <ul><li>Higher Education industrial models are not the same as for profit models. ...
The relationship of pedagogy to industrial models <ul><li>According to Boltanski & Chiappello (01) </li></ul><ul><li>   P...
3. human-centred models key to reform <ul><li>New phase of industrialization in education </li></ul><ul><li>The introducti...
Self-service model <ul><li>Shift towards self-service    requires hyper-autonomous consumers and workers </li></ul><ul><l...
Global neo-industrial trend based on local norms <ul><li>The introduction to ICT is a global phenomenon that takes differe...
Hypothesis <ul><li>Technology, not learning, is central to large scale ICT implementation in Ontario universities.  </li><...
Our field of study <ul><li>By analysing the implementation of blackboard in an Canadian  university, we are trying to appr...
The Ontario context <ul><li>Between 1995 to 2003, Ontario universities have experience reduction in public funding of more...
An Ontario University use of blackboard <ul><li>A project internal to a school regrouping various university actors testin...
Three levels of analysis <ul><li>We analysed three aspects of the actors logics: </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical:  Their con...
1. Pedagogical logics <ul><li>Paradoxal  use of the  concept of autonomy and community : defined as a  constructivist  con...
Conflicting views: Learning as conditionment or bricolage
Conflicting views: Learning as conditionment or bricolage
Discursive views: Learning as both conditionment or bricolage
Opposite system design principles
Opposite system design principles
Hybrid Design
Obstacles <ul><ul><li>The user’s  autonomy  is no  longer  an objective of the learning process  but  assumed to be  pre-e...
2 . socio-economical references   <ul><li>Why are actors interested in a technical system that does not necessarily enhanc...
ICT= solutions to financial problems <ul><li>For administrators:  Virtualization of learning allows service liberalization...
Global versus Active society
Global versus Active society
Global versus Active society
3. Industrial logics: Standardization of knowledge or of tools?   <ul><li>Three type of standardization are present: </li>...
Production chain
Production chain
Production chain
Rationalization of teaching <ul><li>In all cases: </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher s  become content producer </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Outcome <ul><li>A shift in definition of teaching =  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an evolution  of the current system  </li></ul>...
Which logic dominates?  <ul><li>Positioning technology at the heart of the educational system allows to ignore ideological...
Conclusion   <ul><li>The wish to the see education respond to today’s societal needs requires  it’s  technologisation.   <...
Learner centered practices <ul><li>Permits to introduce a rationalised production of electronic educational resources whic...
QUESTION <ul><li>Paradoxe : T he mandate of the present educational system is to  develop the  intellectual autonom y   of...
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Virtual Education: Tool for liberal or humanist values?

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Virtual Education: Tool for liberal or humanist values?

  1. 1. TECHNOLOGY, KNOWLEDGE & SOCIETY , 2005 Alexandra Bal Maison des Sciences de l’Homme de Paris Nord, France New Media Program, Ryerson University, Toronto Virtual Higher Education: A Liberalist or Humanist Socialization Tool ?
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Many claim that information and communication technologies (ICT) have the potential to improve the quality of learning and teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>At the core of the discourse is the promotion of Post-Industrial and Knowledge Based societal models “ The shift into distributed learning represents key challenges for post-secondary education. Digital technologies and pedagogies can support new literacies, learning styles and abilities to prepare students for &quot;learning a living&quot; in the New Economy .” Robert Luke, Nexus conference 2005 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Post-industrial societal model <ul><li>Learning becomes an economic growth factor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The economy is based on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>innovation and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a global market </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on neo-management methods : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>changes in the workplace organisational models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation and reciprocity replace hierarchy and coordination </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Skill development <ul><li>Develop new types of human and cultural capital </li></ul><ul><li>“ (…) it is clear that employers expect university graduates to be proficient in a range of advanced skills, such as leadership and creativity . Learner-centred approaches can help facilitate students' development of advanced skills while they master the knowledge within their chosen fields”, Professor Fred Evers, Director, Centre for Educational Research & Assessment, University of Guelph. Nexus 2005 speaker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity is crucial to innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership is based on Interpersonal communication </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Education has to adapt <ul><li>Advance personalized learning skills that increase new individual aptitudes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving, “learning to learn” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promote learners’ autonomy  for creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Social context for learning  for leadership ) </li></ul>
  6. 6. The constructivism framework <ul><li>Since constructivist practices emphasize the enhancement of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a learner’s autonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A social context of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They are currently considered central to reform as they can better prepare “students for &quot;learning a living&quot; in the New Economy .” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Technology as a solution <ul><li>ICT are seen as a means to improve the quality of education : Can facilitate the introduction of constructivist practices in education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalized diverse student motivations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools for active learning, inherently learner-centred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I ncrease student autonomy in the learning process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual communities = students can learn within a social context </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The paradoxes of practice <ul><li>1) P edagogical principles are not often present in new higher education large scale technological applications . </li></ul><ul><li>The learner’s autonomy is assumed to be pre-existent , while it needs to be fostered (Linard, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>The conceptual framework of many educational application often neglects the mental work required from the user and the gradual learning curve of the processes. </li></ul><ul><li>The time virtual communication require from faculty and students is not taken in consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Few scientific evaluation of innovation can be found </li></ul><ul><li>Most of content analysis is limited to students discussions not the whole course </li></ul><ul><li> the educational process is not central </li></ul>
  9. 9. A broader context for innovation <ul><li>If the educational process is not central to these innovations, w hat is? The significance of educational innovations can not be appreciated by a simple analysis of their pedagogical scope. By broadening the analysis spectrum to take into consideration socio-economic contexts, implicit stakes of innovations’ implementation in education become apparent (Combès 02). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Socio-economic analysis of higher education innovation <ul><li>Incorporat ing actors’ strategies to the analysis of educational experiments , it is noticed that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They regroup actors possessing diverging industrial and pedagogical objectives (Tremblay, 1998) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtualisation of learning is a manifestation of a certain re-industrialisation of education (Moeglin, 1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In this context, a learner’s autonomy can be a means to justify the priority given to the development of industrial learning technologies (Combès 2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today: experimentation= large scale Implementation (live testing) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 1. Actors strategies <ul><li>Actors with diverging objectives need to collaborate to evaluate potential implementation methodologies and usage of educational innovation (Tremblay, 1998) in a “non market” environment </li></ul><ul><li>External actors use education as a testbed before marketing their products to larger markets . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An educational institution = mini society, mini market  simulate the profession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If technology becomes part of students professional habitus, a market share can potentially be secured </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal actors are animated by different ideologies test and/or try to implement their different social reproduction objectives that promote non dominant values </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2. Industrialisation of education <ul><li>Industrialisation = a systematic rationalisation of production practices aimed at enhancing the efficiency of a system . Also refers to the existence of a productivity and profitability tendency within a given organizational structure (Tremblay, 1998) . </li></ul><ul><li>In North America, as early as 1876, an industrialisation process becomes intertwined with a process of technologisation of education. (Berger, 1982, p.96) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technologisation participates to the transformation of the education system into a production system that corresponds to industrial notions of efficiency and productivity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This system is build according to taylorian and behaviorists standards of production. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universities’ educational mandates are amalgamated with industrial ones (Berger, 82). </li></ul>
  13. 13. Industrial models specific to education <ul><li>Higher Education industrial models are not the same as for profit models. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human relationships = service industries models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disseminates culture and publicly funded = cultural industries models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- “ Mutualisation practices ” : social interactions and actions and reaction between producers and users, which are not marketable (Grevet, 2002), unique to education </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The relationship of pedagogy to industrial models <ul><li>According to Boltanski & Chiappello (01) </li></ul><ul><li> Pedagogy methodologies tend to mirror the industrial processes of a specific time </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviorism= 2nd phase of liberal capitalism (50s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberal society = Competition is at the source of progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy = mass production and distribution of standardized goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CEO is in control of passive Worker  autonomy of action but not thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning by objectives  work in a large institution’s hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitivism = rise of a 3rd phase of capitalism more humanistic in nature (70s-90s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active society = Cooperation and reciprocity = principal factor of progress Economy= Innovation Manager in control of Innovative Worker  autonomy of action and thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active learning, user-centred learning  increase innovation potential </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 3. human-centred models key to reform <ul><li>New phase of industrialization in education </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction of electronic systems often comes with a desire to create a new separation and articulation between production and diffusion functions (Moeglin 98). </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-industrial phase= Self-service model </li></ul>
  16. 16. Self-service model <ul><li>Shift towards self-service  requires hyper-autonomous consumers and workers </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism = rise of a 4 th phase of capitalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neo-liberal society = Coopetition : Cooperation and reciprocity (humanist) coexist with hierarchy and coordination (liberal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy= Self-service ICT mediate Workers-client relationships = self-controlled, internalised a set values, autonomy of action and thoughts and ability to operate in a social network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human -centred learning  working in networks </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Global neo-industrial trend based on local norms <ul><li>The introduction to ICT is a global phenomenon that takes different form in different societies  the local situation defines the nature and degree of evolution of the system </li></ul>
  18. 18. Hypothesis <ul><li>Technology, not learning, is central to large scale ICT implementation in Ontario universities. </li></ul><ul><li>Human-centered methodologies are prerequisites to the reindustrialisation of learning processes. They are simultaneously essential </li></ul><ul><li>To a neo-industrial process based on user-centred products adaptable to a diverse client/learner base. </li></ul><ul><li>To a mutualisation process where massification of education continues to position human interactions at the core of the educational process </li></ul>
  19. 19. Our field of study <ul><li>By analysing the implementation of blackboard in an Canadian university, we are trying to apprehend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the values assigned to e-learning as a pedagogical, industrial and social tool. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>While our actors all consider ICT important to reform, their individual professional bias motivates conflicting and incompatible social and ideological finalities. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Ontario context <ul><li>Between 1995 to 2003, Ontario universities have experience reduction in public funding of more than $ 1.8 billion to undergraduate programs  must elimitate redundancies, cut backs and find new revenues </li></ul><ul><li>Double cohort : a massification process </li></ul><ul><li>Students number are increasing while teacher number decrease (T-S ratio: 16:1 in 94, 27:1 to 100:1 in 2004) </li></ul>
  21. 21. An Ontario University use of blackboard <ul><li>A project internal to a school regrouping various university actors testing blackboard as a portal: </li></ul><ul><li>University administration : unified portal for access to all educational, administrative and commercial services, centralized and standardized inscription and content management system </li></ul><ul><li>Distance education : Unified interface to all their pay per use products (virtual content + access to teacher for q&a and grading) </li></ul><ul><li>Undergraduate programs : Unified system of management of massified education: houses content and course management tools, news and communication and hypermediated courses </li></ul>
  22. 22. Three levels of analysis <ul><li>We analysed three aspects of the actors logics: </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical: Their conflicting theoretical positions affect how autonomy is to be translated in the application </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-economical: some actors support knowledge globalization others active society processes, which fuels their conflicting definitions of autonomy. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial : All looking for a way to standardize active learning, they rationalize the use of incompatible educational forms. </li></ul>
  23. 23. 1. Pedagogical logics <ul><li>Paradoxal use of the concept of autonomy and community : defined as a constructivist concept but utilized within a behaviorist or cognitive framework. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicting objectives of the virtual system : conflicting views as the system’s infrastructure and management of content (centralized or localized) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Conflicting views: Learning as conditionment or bricolage
  25. 25. Conflicting views: Learning as conditionment or bricolage
  26. 26. Discursive views: Learning as both conditionment or bricolage
  27. 27. Opposite system design principles
  28. 28. Opposite system design principles
  29. 29. Hybrid Design
  30. 30. Obstacles <ul><ul><li>The user’s autonomy is no longer an objective of the learning process but assumed to be pre-existent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is considered to be equivalent to the mechanical structure of the information and communication system. Priority is given to the structural , not the relational , aspects of learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Untrained labour deal with communication </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. 2 . socio-economical references <ul><li>Why are actors interested in a technical system that does not necessarily enhance learning? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The analysis of actor’s social and economical references reveal that the social mutation they envision can not exist without a virtual educational system. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. ICT= solutions to financial problems <ul><li>For administrators: Virtualization of learning allows service liberalization in education  new revenues </li></ul><ul><li>For educators: Massification of education needs to be dealt with (how to do more with less) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chance to introduce new objectives to education but different ideologies fuel the changes </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Global versus Active society
  34. 34. Global versus Active society
  35. 35. Global versus Active society
  36. 36. 3. Industrial logics: Standardization of knowledge or of tools? <ul><li>Three type of standardization are present: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information “push”: Creation of standards educational products for a segmented market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information “pull” : Creation of standards educational “ dialogical” and informational tools for personalized educational experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital campus: self-service portal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Resources : aggregation of varied forms of content (courses, tools, news, tutorials, surveys) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customized Services : aggregation of library, courses, management of admin and courses, purchases, course assistance </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Production chain
  38. 38. Production chain
  39. 39. Production chain
  40. 40. Rationalization of teaching <ul><li>In all cases: </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher s become content producer </li></ul><ul><li>Their relationship to students decreases, direct contact assumed by untrained labour or mass email lists </li></ul><ul><li>Their role in the learning process becomes oriented towards information processing. </li></ul><ul><li>The control of the learning process goes to other players (tutors, external experts, machine), rarely the student </li></ul><ul><li> The pre-existing autonomy of the user becomes an important predefining element of virtualisation </li></ul>
  41. 41. Outcome <ul><li>A shift in definition of teaching = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an evolution of the current system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and/or a response to the need of new markets based on educational products. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Admin and undergraduate : Evolutionist approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admin: re-industrialisation of bureaucracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undergraduate: virtualisation of mutualisation practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distance education : Materialistic approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New markets for educational products to be commercialized on an international scale. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This potential of market opening depends largely on the editorialisation and commercialisation of educational content. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Which logic dominates? <ul><li>Positioning technology at the heart of the educational system allows to ignore ideological difference of actors. </li></ul><ul><li>Actors implicitly giv e priority to economical not social objectives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admin: Need to render the bureaucracy more efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undergrad: Need to decrease production and usage cost,a ccomodate mass classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance ed: Need to create an environment adaptable to many disciplines. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Various logics co-exists, but system give priority to management of learning not to learning itself </li></ul><ul><li>Educational applications are not of quality : no resources allocated to their production and evaluation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionist approach: teachers will better content over time </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Conclusion <ul><li>The wish to the see education respond to today’s societal needs requires it’s technologisation. </li></ul><ul><li>An economical, not pedagogical, framework tries to legitimize the technologisation of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>The fact that learning is not the central preoccupation to these projects, explains the existence of pedagogical inconsistencies : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non existence of highly promoted active learning methods , too difficult to standardize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of constructivist discourse without its pedagogical framework helps to facilitate the introduction of self-service in education </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Learner centered practices <ul><li>Permits to introduce a rationalised production of electronic educational resources which allows a reduction in the cost of direct human relations (between the teacher and students). </li></ul><ul><li>Permits to reduce the time a teacher spend in front of a class in order to increase the time that this individual spends producing electronic based teaching material such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>self paced learning modules or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>online tutorials or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>educational experiences designs. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. QUESTION <ul><li>Paradoxe : T he mandate of the present educational system is to develop the intellectual autonom y of the learner . Within a virtual educational system, the learner`s autonomy needs to be pre-existent. What will the university educational mandate become? </li></ul><ul><li>If we move towards a virtual system where teachers are no longer directly involve in students ’ learning process , who will become responsible for th eir autonomi s ation and with what consequences? </li></ul>

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