Research2

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Research2

  1. 1. Research strategy• 1. Decide on a an area/topic• 2.Review related literature/ theories• 3. Formulate research questions• 4. Decide research design• 5. Decide research method• 6. Decide on respondents• 7.Collect data• 8. Analyse data• 9. Findings• 10. Write up
  2. 2. Considerations when developing research questions• be clear.• be researchable.• connect with established theory and research.• be linked to each other.• potential for making a contribution to knowledge.• be neither too broad nor too narrow.• etc
  3. 3. Research questions are crucial• guide your literature search;• guide your decisions about the kind of research design to employ;• guide your decisions about what data to collect and from whom;• guide your analysis of your data;• guide your writing up of your data;• stop you from going off track ;• etc
  4. 4. An example Research area (TQM) ↓Select aspect of research area (Impact of TQM on work) ↓ Research questions
  5. 5. Research questions• Does the effect of TQM on job satisfaction vary by level in the organization?• Does TQM disrupt traditional methods of working in firms?• Do workers try to resist TQM and if so how far are they successful?• Does TQM lead to empowerment or disempowermen• Does TQM have a positive or negative impact on job satisfaction?• Does the way that TQM is introduced have an influence on the nature of its impact on job satisfaction?
  6. 6. Selected research questions• Does the effect of TQM on job satisfaction vary by level in the organization?• Does TQM disrupt traditional methods of working in firms?• Do workers try to resist TQM and if so how far are they successful?• Does TQM lead to empowerment or disempowermen• Does TQM have a positive or negative impact on job satisfaction?• Does the way that TQM is introduced have an influence on the nature of its impact on job satisfaction?
  7. 7. Research design and method• Research design provides a framework for the collection and analysis of data.• Eg. experimental design; cross-sectional or social survey design; longitudinal design; case study design• Research method is simply a technique for collecting data.• Eg. a self-completion questionnaire; a structured interview , or participant observation whereby the researcher listens to and watches others
  8. 8. Quantitative vs. Qualitative Quantitative QualitativePrincipal orientation to the Deductive; Inductive;role of theory in relation to testing of theory generation ofresearch theoryEpistemological orientation Natural science Interpretivism model, in particular positivismOntological orientation Objectivism Constructionism
  9. 9. Quantitative research• emphasizes quantification in the collection and analysis of data;• entails a deductive approach to the relationship between theory and research, in which the accent is placed on the testing of theories;• Incorporate the practices and norms of the natural scientific model and of positivism in particular;• embodies a view of social reality as an external, objective reality.
  10. 10. Qualitative research• emphasizes words rather than quantification in the collection and analysis of data and that:• predominantly emphasizes an inductive approach to the relationship between theory and research, in which the emphasis is placed on the generation of theories;• has rejected the practices and norms of the natural scientific model and of positivism in particular in preference for an emphasis on the ways in which individuals interpret their social world; and• embodies a view of social reality as a constantly shifting emergent property of individuals creation.
  11. 11. Quantitative research• What is the problem or concept to be studied?• What are the hypotheses to be tested?• Identify variables and find the relationship?• the information is in the forms of number• the use of the mathematical process is the norm for analysing the numeric data (understanding of statistical package)• the final result is expressed in statistical terminologies
  12. 12. Quantitative research• Advantages:FastEconomicalWide coverage• Disadvantages:InflexibleArtificial
  13. 13. Mixed approachBy incorporating both approaches• a research can start with a quantitative approach first in order to gather appropriate facts to gain general understanding on the matter discussed.• Then a qualitative approach can be carried out so that there will be an in-depth understanding over the generalised facts.

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