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9-1
Presented by
Kamna
Nancy Bhatia
Lovisha Ahluwalia
Bhawna Singh
“Communication and
Group Dynamics”
Management Process and
Organizational Behaviour
9-2
Introduction
Communication is the act of conveying intended meanings
from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually
understood signs and semiotic rules
Group Dynamics is a system of behaviors and psychological
processes occurring within a social group (intragroup dynamics), or
between social groups (intergroup dynamics).
How they are related?
9-3
Communication Process
Communication Process
These are the steps an individual take in order to successfully
communicate. Components of the communication process
include a sender, encoding of a message, selecting of a channel
of communication, receipt of the message by the receiver and
decoding of the message. Noise is anything that hinders
communication.
9-4
Communication Network
• Channel
• The medium selected by the sender through which
the message travels to the receiver
• Types of Channels
• Formal Channels
• Are established by the organization and transmit messages
that are related to the professional activities of members
• Informal Channels
• Used to transmit personal or social messages in the
organization. These informal channels are spontaneous and
emerge as a response to individual choices.
9-5
One-way Communication –
communication that does not
include feedback
Two-way Communication –
communication that includes
feedback and an exchange of
information between two or more
parties
9-6
Communication Networks
Decentralized
Networks
Centralized
Networks
9-7
Direction of
Organizational Communication
Downward
Upward
Horizontal/
Lateral
9-8
Interpersonal Communication
A. Verbal Communication
• Oral Communication
• Advantages: Speed and feedback
• Disadvantage: Distortion of the message
• Written Communication
• Advantages: Tangible and verifiable
• Disadvantages: Time-consuming and lacks feedback
Direct verbal or nonverbal interaction between two or more
active participants
9-9
Nonverbal Communication
• Advantages: Supports other communications and provides observable
expression of emotions and feelings.
• Disadvantage: Misperception of body language or gestures can influence
receiver’s interpretation of message
Body Language
Paralanguage
Gestures
Attitude
Lying?
9-10
ICT Techniques of
Communication
ICT: Information Communications Technology
ICT Communication focuses on the storage, retrieval,
manipulation, transmission or receipt of digital data.
• Electronic Mail
• Facsimile
• Telephone Conferencing
• Video Conferencing
9-11
Models of Communication
Shannon-Weaver Model
Berlo Model
Transactional Process
Model
9-12
Shannon-Weaver Model
9-13
Berlo Model
The Berlo’s model of communication takes into account the
emotional aspect of the message. Berlo’s model of communication
operates on the SMCR model.
9-14
Transactional Process Model
Transactional model of communication is the exchange of messages between
sender and receiver where each take turns to send or receive messages
Here, both sender and receiver are known as communicators and their role
reverses each time in the communication process as both processes of sending
and receiving occurs at the same time.
9-15
Barriers to Communication
Semantic Barriers
Emotional or
Psychological Barriers
Organizational Barriers
Personal Barriers
9-16
AUTOMOTIVE
COMPONENTS LIMITED
Case study
9-17
Name of the company:- Automotive Components Limited
Main product:- Filters for automobile industry.
Business type:- Manufacturer
• Company is facing low productivity.
• One day there was an inspection done by the two engineers.
• Three days after,inspection unit put a notice, asking the members to shut off
the Lights and machines during the break.
• In the next week,a rumour was spread that Company fails to discharge its
contractual commitments.
• This prevails the misconception between the workers.
• The workers became nervous and productivity dropped.
• On the news on low productivity,production manager visited the workshop.
9-18
• Later that day,manager called the meeting of union member,senior workers
and foreman.
• The workers were not satisfied with the managers word.
• After two days,union gave notice to Production manager that they are going
for one day protest
Problem:-
• Internal Threats by workers to go on an strike.
Solutions:-
• Company should change its management policy.
• Production manager should be in direct contact with workers and foreman.
9-19
Group Dynamics
Concept of Group
Features of Group
• Collection of two or more peo
• Common goal or interest
• Interaction and interdependen
• Collective identity
• A stable structure
Group Dynamics
9-20
Types of Groups
• Primary and Secondary Groups
• Membership and Reference Groups
• Command and Task Groups
• In-Group and Out-Groups.
9-21
Stages of Group Development
9-22
Factors Affecting Group
Behaviour
A. Group member resources
• Member’s knowledge, ability, skills and personality
characteristics.
B. Group Structure
• Group size
• Group roles
• Group norms
• Group cohesiveness
• Group conformity
• Group think
9-23
Theories of Group Formation
Propinquity Theory
Homans Interaction Theory
Balance Theory
Exchange Theory
9-24
Propinquity Theory
The term propinquity means nearness. Thus, the theory of propinquity states
that individuals affiliate with one another because of spatial or geographical
proximity. In other words, relationships tend to form between those who
have a high propinquity.
This interesting word simply means that individuals affiliate with one
another because of spatial or geographical proximity.
This theory has a great deal of merit for explaining group formation.
The drawback of this theory is that it is not analytical and does not begin to
explain some of the complexities of group formation. Some more theoretical
and practical reasons need to be explored.
9-25
Homans Interaction Theory
According to George C. Homans, “The more activities persons share, the
more numerous will be there interactions and the stronger will be their shared
activities and sentiments; and the more sentiments people have for one
another, the more will be their shared activities and interactions.”
9-26
Balance Theory
This theory as proposed by Theodore Newcomb states that “Persons are
attracted to one another on the basis of similar attitudes towards commonly
relevant objects and goals. Once a relationship is formed, it strives to maintain
a symmetrical balance between the attraction and the common attitudes. If an
imbalance occurs, attempts are made to restore the balance. If the balance
cannot be restored, the relationship dissolves.”
9-27
Exchange Theory
Exchange theory of groups is based upon reward-cost outcomes of
interactions. A minimum positive level (reward greater than cost) of
an outcome must exist in order for attraction or affiliation to take
place. Rewards from interactions gratify needs, while costs incur
anxiety, frustration, embarrassment, or fatigue. Propinquity,
interaction, and common attitude all have roles in exchange theory.
9-28
Case study
Stylotex Limited
9-29
Name of the company:- Stylotex Limited
• It is the manufacturer of high fashion dresses both for the domestic and
international markets.
•Its emphasis was to develop latest and unique designs specially for
Ladies and children.
•Design was the main strength of the company’s business success.
•The company employed about 600 employees out of which 20 (all
females) were in design department.
 Function:- The main function of design department was to collect
information about the prevailing fashion in international and home
markets, analyze the information, and to suggest and prepare suitable
design for the company.
 Analyzing the situation occurred in this case:-
• This case discusses the problem occurred between Mrs. Vimala, who
was a designer in the company and was in her fifties, and Miss
Sangeeta.
• Mrs. Vimala had experience over fifteen years in this company, in this
period the chief designer of the company who was very experienced
9-30
lady had got retired from her job.
• So in order to fill the vacancy Miss Sangeeta applied for the vacancy
position and she was appointed as a chief designer.
• As Miss Sangeeta was very young, Mrs. Vimala showed direct
resistance towards her.
• Mrs. Vimala had good weightage in the company with the group
members due to her experience. So the group members also showed
resistance towards Miss Sangeeta. They were not ready to accept Miss
Sangeeta as a chief designer and they doesn’t like that a young girl is
directing and controlling them.
The main problem arriving here was actually the age difference.
• Mrs. Vimala didn’t have the mentality to obey and follow the
instruction given by Miss Sangeeta towards the work.
• Mrs. Vimala’s experience and her age was not making her to accept
Miss Sangeeta as a chief designer.
9-31
• But as per the stituation like this, Miss Sangeeta has to tackle and
overcome from this problem. Because only if Miss Sangeeta has good co-
operation with Mrs. Vimala and the group members, then only she can
succeed in her career and will be able to achieve her goal. So she must
take a decision to win over Mrs. Vimala and other members of the group.
 How to Overcome from this problem:-
Miss Sangeeta can make Mrs. Vimala as a team leader of group and make
her to participate in the decision making about dress design. By doing so, she
may feel happy and this will result in co-operation between Miss Sangeeta
and Mrs. Vimala and also will lead to co-operation among the group
members too, as the group members has more weightage and respect towards
Mrs. Vimala.
9-32

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Effective Communication and Group Dynamics in Organizations

  • 1. 9-1 Presented by Kamna Nancy Bhatia Lovisha Ahluwalia Bhawna Singh “Communication and Group Dynamics” Management Process and Organizational Behaviour
  • 2. 9-2 Introduction Communication is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules Group Dynamics is a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group (intragroup dynamics), or between social groups (intergroup dynamics). How they are related?
  • 3. 9-3 Communication Process Communication Process These are the steps an individual take in order to successfully communicate. Components of the communication process include a sender, encoding of a message, selecting of a channel of communication, receipt of the message by the receiver and decoding of the message. Noise is anything that hinders communication.
  • 4. 9-4 Communication Network • Channel • The medium selected by the sender through which the message travels to the receiver • Types of Channels • Formal Channels • Are established by the organization and transmit messages that are related to the professional activities of members • Informal Channels • Used to transmit personal or social messages in the organization. These informal channels are spontaneous and emerge as a response to individual choices.
  • 5. 9-5 One-way Communication – communication that does not include feedback Two-way Communication – communication that includes feedback and an exchange of information between two or more parties
  • 8. 9-8 Interpersonal Communication A. Verbal Communication • Oral Communication • Advantages: Speed and feedback • Disadvantage: Distortion of the message • Written Communication • Advantages: Tangible and verifiable • Disadvantages: Time-consuming and lacks feedback Direct verbal or nonverbal interaction between two or more active participants
  • 9. 9-9 Nonverbal Communication • Advantages: Supports other communications and provides observable expression of emotions and feelings. • Disadvantage: Misperception of body language or gestures can influence receiver’s interpretation of message Body Language Paralanguage Gestures Attitude Lying?
  • 10. 9-10 ICT Techniques of Communication ICT: Information Communications Technology ICT Communication focuses on the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission or receipt of digital data. • Electronic Mail • Facsimile • Telephone Conferencing • Video Conferencing
  • 11. 9-11 Models of Communication Shannon-Weaver Model Berlo Model Transactional Process Model
  • 13. 9-13 Berlo Model The Berlo’s model of communication takes into account the emotional aspect of the message. Berlo’s model of communication operates on the SMCR model.
  • 14. 9-14 Transactional Process Model Transactional model of communication is the exchange of messages between sender and receiver where each take turns to send or receive messages Here, both sender and receiver are known as communicators and their role reverses each time in the communication process as both processes of sending and receiving occurs at the same time.
  • 15. 9-15 Barriers to Communication Semantic Barriers Emotional or Psychological Barriers Organizational Barriers Personal Barriers
  • 17. 9-17 Name of the company:- Automotive Components Limited Main product:- Filters for automobile industry. Business type:- Manufacturer • Company is facing low productivity. • One day there was an inspection done by the two engineers. • Three days after,inspection unit put a notice, asking the members to shut off the Lights and machines during the break. • In the next week,a rumour was spread that Company fails to discharge its contractual commitments. • This prevails the misconception between the workers. • The workers became nervous and productivity dropped. • On the news on low productivity,production manager visited the workshop.
  • 18. 9-18 • Later that day,manager called the meeting of union member,senior workers and foreman. • The workers were not satisfied with the managers word. • After two days,union gave notice to Production manager that they are going for one day protest Problem:- • Internal Threats by workers to go on an strike. Solutions:- • Company should change its management policy. • Production manager should be in direct contact with workers and foreman.
  • 19. 9-19 Group Dynamics Concept of Group Features of Group • Collection of two or more peo • Common goal or interest • Interaction and interdependen • Collective identity • A stable structure Group Dynamics
  • 20. 9-20 Types of Groups • Primary and Secondary Groups • Membership and Reference Groups • Command and Task Groups • In-Group and Out-Groups.
  • 21. 9-21 Stages of Group Development
  • 22. 9-22 Factors Affecting Group Behaviour A. Group member resources • Member’s knowledge, ability, skills and personality characteristics. B. Group Structure • Group size • Group roles • Group norms • Group cohesiveness • Group conformity • Group think
  • 23. 9-23 Theories of Group Formation Propinquity Theory Homans Interaction Theory Balance Theory Exchange Theory
  • 24. 9-24 Propinquity Theory The term propinquity means nearness. Thus, the theory of propinquity states that individuals affiliate with one another because of spatial or geographical proximity. In other words, relationships tend to form between those who have a high propinquity. This interesting word simply means that individuals affiliate with one another because of spatial or geographical proximity. This theory has a great deal of merit for explaining group formation. The drawback of this theory is that it is not analytical and does not begin to explain some of the complexities of group formation. Some more theoretical and practical reasons need to be explored.
  • 25. 9-25 Homans Interaction Theory According to George C. Homans, “The more activities persons share, the more numerous will be there interactions and the stronger will be their shared activities and sentiments; and the more sentiments people have for one another, the more will be their shared activities and interactions.”
  • 26. 9-26 Balance Theory This theory as proposed by Theodore Newcomb states that “Persons are attracted to one another on the basis of similar attitudes towards commonly relevant objects and goals. Once a relationship is formed, it strives to maintain a symmetrical balance between the attraction and the common attitudes. If an imbalance occurs, attempts are made to restore the balance. If the balance cannot be restored, the relationship dissolves.”
  • 27. 9-27 Exchange Theory Exchange theory of groups is based upon reward-cost outcomes of interactions. A minimum positive level (reward greater than cost) of an outcome must exist in order for attraction or affiliation to take place. Rewards from interactions gratify needs, while costs incur anxiety, frustration, embarrassment, or fatigue. Propinquity, interaction, and common attitude all have roles in exchange theory.
  • 29. 9-29 Name of the company:- Stylotex Limited • It is the manufacturer of high fashion dresses both for the domestic and international markets. •Its emphasis was to develop latest and unique designs specially for Ladies and children. •Design was the main strength of the company’s business success. •The company employed about 600 employees out of which 20 (all females) were in design department.  Function:- The main function of design department was to collect information about the prevailing fashion in international and home markets, analyze the information, and to suggest and prepare suitable design for the company.  Analyzing the situation occurred in this case:- • This case discusses the problem occurred between Mrs. Vimala, who was a designer in the company and was in her fifties, and Miss Sangeeta. • Mrs. Vimala had experience over fifteen years in this company, in this period the chief designer of the company who was very experienced
  • 30. 9-30 lady had got retired from her job. • So in order to fill the vacancy Miss Sangeeta applied for the vacancy position and she was appointed as a chief designer. • As Miss Sangeeta was very young, Mrs. Vimala showed direct resistance towards her. • Mrs. Vimala had good weightage in the company with the group members due to her experience. So the group members also showed resistance towards Miss Sangeeta. They were not ready to accept Miss Sangeeta as a chief designer and they doesn’t like that a young girl is directing and controlling them. The main problem arriving here was actually the age difference. • Mrs. Vimala didn’t have the mentality to obey and follow the instruction given by Miss Sangeeta towards the work. • Mrs. Vimala’s experience and her age was not making her to accept Miss Sangeeta as a chief designer.
  • 31. 9-31 • But as per the stituation like this, Miss Sangeeta has to tackle and overcome from this problem. Because only if Miss Sangeeta has good co- operation with Mrs. Vimala and the group members, then only she can succeed in her career and will be able to achieve her goal. So she must take a decision to win over Mrs. Vimala and other members of the group.  How to Overcome from this problem:- Miss Sangeeta can make Mrs. Vimala as a team leader of group and make her to participate in the decision making about dress design. By doing so, she may feel happy and this will result in co-operation between Miss Sangeeta and Mrs. Vimala and also will lead to co-operation among the group members too, as the group members has more weightage and respect towards Mrs. Vimala.
  • 32. 9-32