These are the transverse arches that span the ends of the vault, the lateral or longitudinal arches that span the length or sides of the vault, and the two diagonal arches that reach from corner to corner...
Introduction 12th century: origin 13th century: developed 14th century until mid 15th century: international Second half of the 15th century: flamboyant
Cathedral The cathedral has three levels: low, gallery and clerestory The walls are open, allowing a lot of light into the church, Windows can be open because there are new supports that are not glued to the wall.
Gothic architectureArchitectural elements pointed arch rib vault flying buttress pillar Examples Next slide Interior of Reims Cathedral, France 5 / 11
Gothic architecture steeple pinnaclesArchitectural elements flying buttresses The rose window and pointed arch stained glass windows side door allow light to enter.. rib vault The central tympanum flying on the main facade buttress is highly decorated. pillar main facade Examples Next slide Chartres Cathedral, France
St. Etienne, Bourges, late 12 c “Flying” Buttresses
French Gothic• The distinctive characteristic of French cathedrals, and those in Germany and Belgium that were strongly influenced by them, is their height and their impression of verticality.• They are compact, with slight or no projection of the transepts and subsidiary chapels.• The west fronts have three portals surmounted by a rose window, and two large towers.• The east end is polygonal with ambulatory and sometimes a chevette of radiating chapels.• In the south of France, many of the major churches are without transepts and some are without aisles
St. Sernin 1010, St. Etienne1067, Chartres 1194(E. Romanesque) (L. Romanesque)
British Gothic • The distinctive characteristic of English cathedrals is their extreme length and their internal emphasis upon the horizontal. • It is not unusual for every part of the building to have been built in a different century and in a different style, with no attempt at creating a stylistic unity. • English cathedrals sprawl across their sites, with double transepts projecting strongly and Lady Chapels tacked on at a later date. • In the west front the doors are not significant • The West window is very large and never a rose, which are reserved for the transept gables. • The west front may have two towers or none. • There is nearly always a tower at the crossing and it may be very large and surmounted by a spire. • The distinctive English east end is square.
Italian Gothic• It uses polychrome decoration, both externally as marble veneer on the brick facade and also internally where the arches are often made of alternating black and white segments.• The plan is usually regular and symmetrical and have few and widely spaced columns.• The proportions are generally mathematically simple, based on the square, the arches are almost always equilateral.• It may include mosaics in the lunettes over the doors.• The facades have projecting open porches and occular or wheel windows rather than roses, and do not usually have a tower.• The crossing is usually surmounted by a dome.• There is often a free-standing tower and baptistry.• The windows are not as large as in northern Europe and, although stained glass windows are used, the decoration is fresco or mosaic.
Orvieto, 1310; Miniato al Monte1062; Pisa cathedral 1063
German Gothic • It is characterised by huge towers and spires. • The west front generally follows the French formula, but the towers are taller, and if complete, are surmounted by enormous openwork spires. • The eastern end follows the French form. • The distinctive character of the interior of German Gothic cathedrals is their breadth and openness. • Cathedrals tend not to have strongly projecting transepts. • There are also many hallenkirke without clerestorey windows.
Spanish Gothic• Spanish Gothic cathedrals are of spacial complexity.• They are comparatively short and wide, and are often completely surrounded by chapels.• Spanish Cathedrals are stylistically diverse.• Influences on both decoration and form are Islamic architecture, and towards the end of the period, Renaissance details combined with the Gothic in a distinctive manner.• The West front resembles a French west front,• There are spires of German style.• Few pinnacles.• There are often towers and domes of a great variety of shapes and structural invention rising above the roof.
Civilian Architecture Town halls were the residence of the city’s government There are two kind of models: Northern (Netherlands) : very decorated, with ogee and lancet arches Southern (Italian): closer, sometimes as a fortress Leuven Siena
Civilian Architecture Palaces were the residences of the nobility They lose their defensive character
New Class of Wealthy Merchants - French Guild Hall –Figure 18-28 House of Jacques Coeur, Bourges, France, 1443– Figure 18-27 Hall of the cloth guild, Bruges, Netherlands, begun 811451.
Civilian Architecture Its development is consequence of trade renaissance development of cities government Main buildings are Palaces Town halls Markets
Civilian Architecture Markets were the places for keeping the products and to sell them They have big rooms with this purpose The spaces are clear, with high and stylised columns