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Latinos in Boston

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Presentation to the Boston foundation.

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Latinos in Boston

  1. 1. Latinos in Boston (the future is here … and it’s has been here for a while) Alvaro Lima, BPDA Research Division October, 2016
  2. 2. 2 536,340 518,361 500,527 514,019 531,425 565,740 573,287 590,490 623,134 655,434 0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000 1980 1990 2000 2010 2014 Boston's Population 1980 to 2014 Population without Latinos Population 5.2% 9.6% 15.2% 17.5% 18.9%  Latinos are key to the growth of Boston. Without Latinos, Boston’s population would have continued to decline through 2000 and would be almost 20% smaller today Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1980-2000 Decennial Census, IPUMS, 2010 & 2014 1-year American Community Survey, PUMS, BPDA Research Division Analysis
  3. 3. 3  Latinos contribute heavily to Boston’s growing diversity. While in 1970 they represent 2.6% of the population, in 2013, they made up 18% 79.8% 67.9% 59.0% 49.5% 47.0% 46.6% 15.8% 21.7% 23.8% 23.8% 22.4% 22.9% 2.6% 6.4% 10.8% 14.4% 17.5% 18.0% 1.3% 2.7% 5.2% 7.5% 8.9% 9.0% 1.4% 1.2% 4.7% 4.3% 3.7% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2013 Boston's Diverse Population 1970-2013 White Black / African American Hispanic Asian / Pacific Islander Other Note: 2000 was the first year the Census compiled data on individuals who identified themselves as multiracial. Those who indicated “two or more races” are included in “Other” in 2000 and 2010 in this chart. Source: 1970 -2010 U.S. Decennial Census, 2009-2013 American Community Survey, BRA Research Division Analysis
  4. 4. Latino Populations in Boston 4 • In 2014 there were 124,009 Latinos in Boston, 18% of the 655,434 total residents • Latinos are almost twice as likely to be foreign-born as non-Latinos (43.3% vs. 23.3%) Top 10 Latino Groups Boston Population Percent Foreign Born Dominican 31,907 57.6% Puerto Rican 31,243 1.2% Salvadoran 13,072 73.1% Colombian 8,748 72.5% Mexican 7,220 40.9% Guatemalan 5,355 62.4% Honduran 4,734 46.0% Brazilian 2,851 68.1% Cuban 2,591 41.8% Peruvian 1,659 63.6% Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010-2014 American Community Survey, BPDA Research Division Analysis
  5. 5. 5Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census and 2010-2014 American Community Survey, PUMS, BRA Research Division Analysis 5,006 10,267 7,544 4,970 4,995 4,215 3,044 2,099 2,224 1,777 18,904 13,775 9,984 6,883 5,543 5,059 3,893 2,949 2,765 2,593 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 East Boston Dorchester Roxbury Jamaica Plain Hyde Park Roslindale Brighton Fenway South End Allston Top Boston Neighborhoods by Hispanic Adult Population Citizen Non-Citizen Total 18+ Population
  6. 6. DISPERSION AND CONCENTRATION LATINO POPULATION The Latino population has grown significantly since 1970 with large communities forming in East Boston and Jamaica Plain 6Source: 1970 U.S. Decennial Census, BRA Research Division Analysis
  7. 7. Latinos keep Boston Young 7 -20% -15% -10% -5% 0% 5% 10% 15% 0 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 ot 44 45 to 49 50 to 54 55 to 59 60 to 64 65 to 69 70 to 74 75 to 79 80 to 84 85 Plus Non-Latino Male Female -15% -10% -5% 0% 5% 10% 15% 0 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 ot 44 45 to 49 50 to 54 55 to 59 60 to 64 65 to 69 70 to 74 75 to 79 80 to 84 85 Plus Latino Male Female • Latinos are younger than the rest of the Boston population, with a median age of 27 compared to 32 for non- Latinos. • The Latino population has a much larger share of children and teenagers, and a smaller share of elderly residents. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 – 2014 American Community Survey, BPDA Research Division Analysis.
  8. 8. 8 287,860 259,017 237,291 256,252 254,403 309,140 294,098 291,534 317,009 320,513 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 1980 1990 2000 2010 2014 Boston's Population age 30 or Under, 1980 - 2014 Population 30 or under without Latinos Population 30 or under 6.9% 11.9% 18.6% 19.2% 20.6% Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1980-2000 Decennial Census, IPUMS, 2010 & 2014 1-year American Community Survey, PUMS, BPDA Research Division Analysis
  9. 9. 9Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1980-2000 Decennial Census, IPUMS, 2010 & 2014 1-year American Community Survey, PUMS, BPDA Research Division Analysis 265,460 291,838 267,813 308,218 316,940 274,320 316,507 306,835 367,478 380,033 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000 1980 1990 2000 2010 2014 Boston's Labor Force 1980 to 2014 Labor Force without Latinos Labor Force 3.2% 7.8% 12.7% 16.1% 16.6%  Boston’s prosperity depend in great part on the growth of it’s labor force. Without Latinos, Boston’s labor force would grow by 19.4% instead of 38.5%
  10. 10. 10  Boston’s prosperity depend in great part on the growth of it’s labor force. Without Latinos, Boston’s output …. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1990-2010 Decennial Census, BRA Research Division Analysis 229,843 203,454 302,502 288,076 283,576 403,386 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000 450,000 1990 2000 2010 Population Year Boston’s Workforce Trends (1990 – 2010) Native Employed Total Employed $26 $38 $87 $21 $29 $67 $0 $10 $20 $30 $40 $50 $60 $70 $80 $90 $100 1990 2000 2010 BillionsofUSDollars Year Boston Output Trends (in 2010 Dollars) Total Native
  11. 11. Latinos drive Boston’s economy 11 Latinos help drive Boston’s economy through their labor and consumer spending. In 2014, Latinos generated total annual expenditures of $1.43 billion  contributed to $1 billion to the regional product  generated $50 million in state and local taxes  supported 8,579 jobs in the Massachusetts economy BPDA Research Division Analysis, 2014, Regional Economic Model, Inc., REMI calculations
  12. 12. Profile of Latinos
  13. 13. 13 1.7% 4.2% 11.5% 18.9% 63.8% 1.4% 3.9% 8.6% 13.4% 72.7% 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% Self-employed, incorporated Self-employed, unincorporated Government Non-profit company For-profit company Class of Employment by Ethnicity Latino Non Latino Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2014 American Community Survey, BPDA Research Division Latinos are more likely than non-Latinos to work for a for-profit company.
  14. 14. 14Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2014 American Community Survey, BPDA Research Division Analysis.  Latinos make up close to a quarter of Boston workers employed in construction; retail trade; transportation, warehousing, and utilities; and arts, entertainment, accommodation, and food services 302 891 2,739 3,975 2,783 3,523 3,364 6,369 3,790 9,900 4,600 9,077 9,431 5,491 9,405 9,256 9,977 14,169 14,323 16,579 20,875 31,027 32,900 41,480 49,848 56,191 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 Wholesale Trade Information Transportation, Warehousing & Utilities Construction Public Administration Other Services Manufacturing Retail Trade Finance, Insurance, & Real Estate Arts, Entertainment, Accommodation, & Food Services Education Professional, Scientific, and Management, Administrative & Waste Management Health and Social Services Employment by Industry and Ethnicity Latino Non-Latino
  15. 15. 15Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2014 American Community Survey, BPDA Research Division Analysis. Latinos represent half of Boston’s workers employed in building & grounds, cleaning and maintenance occupations Latinos represent about a quarter of workers employed in natural resources, construction & maintenance, food preparation & serving, and production, transportation, & material moving 4,248 9,264 1,810 2,939 7,300 6,790 1,954 4,363 1,778 3,210 6,715 2,743 7,797 12,819 9,186 20,496 20,063 17,228 19,926 26,603 25,375 29,436 28,214 29,673 34,760 38,188 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 45,000 50,000 Natural Resources, Construction, & Maintenance Building & Grounds, Cleaning & Maintenance Healthcare Practitioners & Technical Legal, Community Service, Art & Media Food Preparation & Serving Related Production & Transportation & Material Moving Education, Training, & Library Sales Related Business & Financial Specialists Computer, Engineering & Sciences Healthcare Support, Personal Care & Protective Services Management Office & Administrative Support Employment by Occupation and Ethnicity Latino Non-Latino
  16. 16. Disparities Facing Latinos in Boston
  17. 17. English Proficiency 17 • Only 58% of Latinos speak English only or very well, compared to 88% of non-Latinos. 14.0% 73.9%44.0% 14.5% 16.0% 5.3% 17.5% 4.4%8.5% 2.0% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Latinos Non-Latinos English Proficiency by Ethnicity Only English at home English Very Well* English Well* English Not Well* English Not at All* Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2014 American Community Survey, BPDA Research Division Analysis * These people speak a language other than English at home.
  18. 18. 18Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2014 American Community Survey, PUMS, BPDA Research Division Analysis. Many Latinos lack citizenship • Only 72.8% of all Latinos are citizens, compared to 88.8% of non-Latinos. • In 2014, 65.1% of Boston’s Hispanic adults were citizens – 55,649 potential voters • Only 37.3% of foreign-born Latinos are citizens, compared to 52.0% of foreign-born non- Latinos. 56.7% 76.7% 16.2% 12.1% 27.2% 11.2% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Latino Non-Latino Citizenship by Ethnicity Native Born Naturalized Citizen Non-citizen
  19. 19. 19 33.2% 27.6% 19.4% 19.7% 12.3% 19.4% 17.4% 50.8% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Less than High School High School Some College Bachelor's Degree of Higher Educational Attainment by Ethnicity Latino Non-Latino Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 – 2014 American Community Survey, BPDA Research Division Analysis. • About one in three Latinos in Boston have less than a high school education as their highest level of educational attainment. • Only about 20% of Latinos have a Bachelor’s degree or higher, compared to over half of non- Latinos.
  20. 20. 20 63.0% 18.9% 17.1% 48.4% 29.1% 43.5% 30.9% 44.0% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Percent of Population age 25+ with a Bachelor’s Degree or Higher % of all Boston residents age 25+ with a BA or higher 23.2% 60.5% 8.7% 18.6% 10.3% 15.8%21.1% 49.0% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 1980 1990 2000 2010 Population 25+ with Bachelor's Degree or Higher White Black/African-American Hispanic Asian 28.0% 6.5% 37.6% 19.7% 55.7% 34.5% 49.0% 24.9% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 1980 1990 2000 2010 Population 25+ with less than High School Education White Black/African-American Hispanic Asian Increasing Educational Attainment & Widening Gap Increasing Educational Attainment & Steady Gap
  21. 21. 21Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2014 American Community Survey, BPDA Research Division Analysis. $19,166 $29,166 $29,697 $31,250 $35,295 $35,416 $37,086 $37,312 $37,500 $44,169 $54,707 $31,250 $31,261 $37,889 $60,024 $43,765 $43,765 $58,489 $52,083 $41,577 $54,707 $72,916 $- $10,000 $20,000 $30,000 $40,000 $50,000 $60,000 $70,000 $80,000 Other Service Production Sales Office & Administrative Support Community & Social Service Healthcare Practitioners & Support Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports & Media Construction, Extraction, Maintenance, and Transportation Education, Training, & Library Managerial Professional Latino and Non-Latino Wages by Occupation for Full-Time, Full-Year Labor Force Participants, 2014 Non-Latino Latino
  22. 22. 22 34.9% 18.6% 23.6% 14.9% 23.4% 20.8% 18.1% 45.7% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Latino Non-Latino Poverty by Ethnicity 100 Percent or Below 101 to 200 Percent 201 to 400 Percent Over 400 Percent 35% of Latinos live in poverty compared to only 19% of non-Latinos Only 18% of Latinos have a family income over 400% of the poverty line, while 46% of non-Latinos do 45% of Latino children and 27% of non-Latino children live in poverty Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2015 American Community Survey, BPDA Research Division Analysis
  23. 23. 23 • Income Inequality • Wealth Inequality (net worth/home ownership/etc…) • Unbanked • Health insurance 82.6% 61.4% 17.4% 38.6% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Latino Non-Latino Tenure by Householder Ethnicity Renter Homeowner Latinos face housing challenges. • Only 17% of Latinos own their home. • The share of non-Latino homeowners is more than double the Latino share of homeowners. • 52% of Latinos are housing burdened, compared to 44% of non-Latinos.
  24. 24. 24 42.8% 28.7% 15.3% 25.6% 28.0% 30.6% 26.2% 33.9% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% Home Ownership by Demographics of Householder Overall Boston Home Ownership Rate
  25. 25. 25 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census and 2010-2014 American Community Survey, PUMS, BRA Research Division Analysis • The Hispanic voting eligible population grew about 60 percent between 2000 and 2014. • In 2000, about 9 percent of the city’s voting eligible population was Hispanic. In 2014, it was 12.5 percent. 62.3% 56.7% 20.4% 21.0% 9.0% 12.5% 4.8% 6.9% 3.5% 2.9% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 2000 2014 Racial and Ethnic Distribution -Voting Eligible Population (Boston 2000 and 2014) White Black Hispanic Asian Others
  26. 26. 26 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census and 2010-2014 American Community Survey, PUMS, BRA Research Division Analysis  Voter rolls in Massachusetts do not include information on race or ethnicity.  Using Namsor, software that identifies the linguistic origin of names, we can get some estimate of the voting propensity of registered voters with Hispanic names.  Our estimates come from the a registration list as of December 2015, and whether the voters had participated in the November 2012 election (a presidential election year)  We find that 54.2% of voters with Hispanic names registered as of 2015 voted in the 2012 election, compared to 59.5% of voters with names not identified as or Hispanic origin. VOTING AMONG REGISTERED VOTERS WITH HISPANIC NAMES
  27. 27. Latino Elected Officials from Boston • Of Boston’s 50 elected officials, 4 are Latino/a. These include: • Senator Sonia Chang-Diaz, Massachusetts Senate 2nd Suffolk District • Representative Adrian Madaro, Massachusetts House 1st Suffolk District • Representative Jeffrey Sanchez, Massachusetts House 15th Suffolk District • Felix D. Arroyo, Register of Probate for Suffolk County 27
  28. 28. Latinos on Public Committees 28 • Latinos are slightly more likely to be appointed to serve on public commissions than to be elected to office. • The Boston School Committee (7 members), includes 1 Latina (Miren Uriarte). • The Boston School Nominating Panel (13 members who recommend members for the School Committee) includes 2 Latinos: Tony Barros and Angeline Camacho. • The Public Library Board of Trustees (9 members) has 2 Latinas: Evelyn Arana-Ortiz and Zamawa Arenas. • The Zoning Commission (11 members) includes Nelson Arroyo. • The BPDA Board (5 members) includes Priscilla Rojas.

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