Name__________________________________________ Date________________ Period_____ 

              Leeuwenhoek’s	Animalcules...



Guide to Identification of Fresh Water

        Microscopic autotrophic organisms (i...
Protozoa – heterotrophic only
   Name          Picture                  Characteristic            Taxonomy
1. mostly free
                                 living forms
                              2. cell of fixed
Other fresh water plankton (Animalia, Monera, etc)

     Name                     Picture    Characteristic          Taxon...
1. moves in rapid
                                 “s” form
                              2. round body
Roundworms        ...
Arthropods - segmented, exoskeletons
   Name                  Picture   Characteristic            Taxonomy
1. two jointed tails
Stonefly                                    (cerci)              Class Insecta
nymph                 ...
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Leeuwenhoek's animalcules


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This is a variation of the pond water lab found abundantly in the web. This handout focuses on teaching the students the difference between unicellular and multicellular organisms found in fresh water ecosystem. Thanks to for the Guide to Identification of Fresh Water Microorganisms. I appended the guide to this worksheet I created.

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  • Understanding Leeuwenhoek is understanding nature as such.
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  • Leeuwenhoek is one of my favorite scientist. He is really good especially in biology that's why I appreciate him so much. I love reading biology when I was in high school and I found this presentation looks so informative. We could learn more things about biology in this presentation.
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Leeuwenhoek's animalcules

  1. 1. Name__________________________________________ Date________________ Period_____  Leeuwenhoek’s Animalcules (Pond Water Lab) Learning Objective Today, I will   1. differentiate between unicellular and multicellular organisms.  2. draw unicellular and multicellular organisms.  Materials microscope, pond water culture, eyedropper, glass slide, glass cover, cotton, Guide to Identification of  Fresh Water Microorganisms  Procedure 1. Place some cotton fibers on the middle of the glass slide. The cotton fibers will trap or slow down  the “animalcules” and make finding them and focusing easier.  2. Using an eyedropper, put a very small drop of pond water on the glass slide.   3. Now look at the drop of pond water through the microscope at 40x magnification (eyepiece x  scanning objective).  4. Once you see a living thing, follow it closely and sketch it in the circles below.    5. Refer to the Guide to Identification of Fresh Water Microorganisms to identify the organism you  just drew. Write whether it is unicellular or multicellular.   6. Draw and identify at least 3 microorganisms. You can also use 100x magnification (eyepiece x low  power objective) to observe the organisms in more detail.  Illustrations                               Name__________________________________  Name__________________________________  U or M?________________________________  U or M?________________________________ 
  2. 2.                               Name__________________________________  Name__________________________________  U or M?________________________________  U or M?________________________________                                Name__________________________________  Name__________________________________  U or M?________________________________  U or M?________________________________  Closure What is the difference between a unicellular organism and a multicellular organism?  _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________    
  3. 3. Guide to Identification of Fresh Water Microorganisms Microscopic autotrophic organisms (i.e. algae) Name Picture Characteristic Taxonomy Green algae Phylum 1. flagella (with Chlorophyceae 2. small flagella, i.e. 3. solitary small) Chlamyolomonas 4. rapid movement <.05 mm sp. Green algae 1. spherical Phylum (with 2. colonial Chlorophyceae flagella) 3. with two flagella i.e. Volvox sp. .5-2mm 1. spherical to Green algae conical Phylum (no flagella) 2. not attached to Chlorophyceae <.5 mm surface i.e. Pediastrum sp. 3. no movement Filamentous 1. non branching Phylum green algae 2. chains of cells Gamophyceae <.1 mm – with chloroplast i.e. Zygnema sp. cms 3. no flagella Spirogyra sp. 1. green 2. no flagella Phylum 3. mainly solitary, Desmids Gamophyceae some colonial <.5 mm i.e. Desmidium sp 4. various shapes Closterium sp. 5. two semi-cell, mirror image 1. one cell 2. slow gliding motion Phylum Diatoms 3. solitary or Bacillariophyceae <.5 mm colonial i.e. Pennales, 4. cell wall Centric (frustules) made of silica Math/Science Nucleus © 2004 1
  4. 4. Protozoa – heterotrophic only Name Picture Characteristic Taxonomy 1. one or more flagella Flagellates 2. colonial or free Zoomastigophora <.5mm living i.e choanoflagellates 3. with or without lorica 1. pseudopodia Sacrodina Amoeba 2. slow movement Order Amoebina .02 –5 mm 3. engulfs food i.e. Amoeba proteus 1. amoeba with a Shelled shell, usually Sacrodina Amoeba sand grains Order Testacea .1-.4 mm 2. pseudopodia i.e Arcella sp. 3. slow movement 1. spherical Heliozoans 2. radiating hair Sacrodina .01-1 mm like pseudopods Order Heliozoea 3. no movement 1. cylindrical or bell shaped bodies Ciliates – 2. undulating cilia Ciliophora Peritrich 3. some stalked Order Peritrichida < .25 mm 4. often colonial i.e. Vorticella sp. 5. attached to different substrate 1. no cilia, sticky Ciliates – tentacles Ciliophora Suctoria some attached to Order Eridogenida <.7 mm other organisms i.e. Tokophyra sp. (i.e. Suctoria) Math/Science Nucleus © 2004 2
  5. 5. 1. mostly free living forms 2. cell of fixed Ciliophora Ciliates shape Order Paramecium 3. movement by Oliogohymenophorea .01 – 4mm contraction and i.e. Paramecium sp use of cilia 4. fixed mouth and anal pore 1. large body Ciliates Ciliophora 2. contractile Stentor Orer Heterotrichea 3. cilia on mouth .01 – 4 mm i.e. Stentor sp. end 1. barrel-shaped Ciliates 2. spinous Ciliophora Coleps projection at Order Prostomatea .01-4mm posterior end i.e. Coleps sp. 3. cytosome apical Math/Science Nucleus © 2004 3
  6. 6. Other fresh water plankton (Animalia, Monera, etc) Name Picture Characteristic Taxonomy 1. blue green color Kingdom Blue-green 2. gliding Monera algae movement i.e. Annabella (cyanobacteria) 3. prokaryote sp. 1. sometimes Phylum Euglenoids green Euglenida <.4mm 2. flagellate i.e. Euglena sp. 3. red eye spot 1. free swimming 2. tough armor Dinoflagellates Phylum 3. flagellate <.4mm Dinoflagellate 4. autotrophic, heterotrophic 1. corona with cilia 2. hairy appendages Phylum Rotifer 3. transparent with Class Rotifers lorica Bdelloided .4mm - 2 cm 4. free swimming Class or attached Monogononta 5. organs, compressed body 1. green brown or colorless 2. body and Phylum Hydra tentacles Cnidaria 2 cm contract and i.e. Hydra sp. stretch 3. primitive organs Phylum 1. flattened Platyhelminthes Flatworms 2. eye spots Class 1-15+ mm 3. move in gliding Turbellaria motion i.e. Planaria sp. Math/Science Nucleus © 2004 4
  7. 7. 1. moves in rapid “s” form 2. round body Roundworms Phylum 3. bilateral .2-10 mm Nematodes 4. anterior, posterior openings 1. segmented Phylum Oligochaetes 2. worm motion Annelida 1.5 mm - >2 3. hair bundles Class cm (setae) Oligochaeta 1. predatory or Phylum Leeches parasitic Annelida > 1 cm 2. terminal suckers Class Hirudinea 3. hermaphroditic 1. mainly benthic Phylum 2. head bristles Gastrotricha Gastrotricha 3. eat algae, Order .1-1.5mm bacteria, Chaetonotida protozoa 1. head and 4 trunk Tardigrades segments Little water Phylum 2. 4 pair legs bears Tardigrada 3. eyes < 1 mm 4. herbivores Math/Science Nucleus © 2004 5
  8. 8. Arthropods - segmented, exoskeletons Name Picture Characteristic Taxonomy Class 1. bean-like shell Crustacea Ostracods 2. filter feeders Order <2mm 3. bivalve Ostracoda carapace i.e. Cypris sp. Class 1. long antennae Copepods Crustacea 2. tiny eyespot .5-3mm Order 3. holoplankton Copepoda 1. antennae Class 2. large compound Crustacea Water fleas eye Order .3-10mm 3. holoplankton Cladocera i.e. Daphnia sp 1. flattened Class Isopods 2. 7 pairs legs Crustacea 5-20mm 3. scavengers Order Isopoda 1. curved Class 2. compressed Amphipods Crustacea body 5-25mm Order 3. humped back Amphipoda 4. scavengers 1. 8 legs 2. round body Water Class 3. larvae mites Arachnida (parasitic) .5-5mm Order Acarina 4. nymph looks like adult 1. one tail Class Insecta Alderfly 2. long filaments Order nymph along the Megaloptera 5-25mm abdomen Family Sialidae 3. meroplankton 1. cylindrical case Caddisfly for protection Class Insecta larva 2. distinct case but Order 3-40mm different Trichoptera materials Math/Science Nucleus © 2004 6
  9. 9. 1. two jointed tails Stonefly (cerci) Class Insecta nymph 2. carnivorous Order <15 mm 3. indicates clean Plecoptera water 1. three jointed Mayfly Class Insecta tails nymph Order 2. leaf-like gills on <15mm Ephemeroptera sides 1. three leaf like Damselfly Class Insecta tail appendages Nymph Order Odonata (gills) <15mm Zygoptera 2. extendable jaws 1. robust Dragonfly Class Insecta 2. no tail nymph Order Odonata appendages <15mm Anisoptera 3. extendable jaws Water Class Insecta 1. no jaws boatman Order 2. tube-like beak nymph.and Hemiptera 3. nymphs don’t adult Family have wings 10-15mm Corixidae 1. strong jaws 2. tough shield 3. fierce predator Class Insecta Water adult Order beetle 1. strong jaws Coleoptera <45mm 2. long segmented Family Elmidae body 3. short legs nymph 1. long slender Mosquito body Class Insecta larva 2. moves in Order Diptera 1-20 mm undulating s curves Drawings redrawn from Math/Science Nucleus © 2004 7