Stages of ESP Course Design Identifying and Conducting Steps of Needs Assessment
STAGES OF ESP COURSEDESIGN IDENTIFYING ANDCONDUCTING STEPS OF NEEDASSESSMENTGroup VI
Language-centred course designThe language-centred course design process aims to draw as directa connection as possible between the analysis of the target situationand the content of ESP courseIdentify learnersTarget situationEstablishevaluationprocedures totest acquisitionof syllabus itemsSelect theoriticalviews oflanguageIdentify linguisticfeature of targetsituationCreate syllabusdesign materialto examplifysyllabus items
Skill-centred course designThe basic theoretical hypothesis is thatunderlying any language behavior are certainskill and strategies, which the learner uses inorder to produce or comprehend discourse
WritesyllabusIdentify targetsituationSelect texts andwrite exercisesto focus on skill/strategies insyllabusEstablishevaluationprocedureswhich requirethe use of skills/strategies insyllabusTheoreticalviews of learningAnalyse skill/strategiesrequired to copein target situationTheoreticalviews oflanguage
A learning-centred approachThe learner-centred approach is based on theprinciple that learning is totally determine by thelearner.
A language-centred approach considers the learner to hereA language-centred approachconsiders the learner to hereA leraning-centred approachmust consider the learner at everystageIdentify target situationAnalyse target situationAnalyse learning situationTeach materialsWrite materialsWrite syllabusEvaluate learnerachievement
WHAT IS A NEEDSASSESSMENT? A needs assessment is a systematic approachto studying the state of knowledge, ability,interest, or attitude of a defined audience orgroup involving a particular subject.
Direct and indirect assessmentsA direct needs assessment is accomplishedthrough formal research that gathers data fromclientele. An indirect approach uses secondarydata or asks surrogates (advisors) for theiropinions about priority needs and issues.
An indirect assessment can be conducted atany time when an advisory committee ismeeting and does not require the same levelof investment in the design, implementation,and analysis.
Seven steps in conducting a needsassessment1. Write objectives: What is it that you want tolearn from the needs assessment?2. Select audience: Who is the targetaudience? Whose needs are you measuring,and to whom will you give the requiredinformation?3. Collect data: How will you collect data thatwill tell you what you need to know? Will youcollect data directly from the target audience orindirectly?
4. Select audience sample: How will you selecta sample of respondents who represent thetarget audience?5. Pick an instrument: What instruments andtechniques will you use to collect data?6. Analyze data: How will you analyze the datayou collect?7. Follow-up: What will you do with informationthat you gain?
Objectives of a needsassessment:Various objectives of a needs assessment arebased on two things: who is asking thequestions (what is your mission andresponsibility?); and who is the targetaudience. The objectives will dictate how theneeds assessment is to be designed andconducted.
FOUR DATA COLLECTINGMETHODS1. SURVEYSWritten surveys may be conducted by mail, bye-mail, or by using a Web page. They alsomay be used to gather data from a group ofindividuals attending an event.2. INTERVIEWSInterviews are a means to collect needsassessment data through one or moreconversations between two or more people.
3. FOCUS GROUPSFocus groups are group discussions conducted inperson with a limited number of stakeholders togain information about their views andexperiences on a topic.4. WORKING GROUPSGroup process is used to manage how peoplework together in groups. Group processes refer toa variety of techniques and activities throughwhich a facilitator leads a group to a desiredoutput and corresponding outcome.