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  1. 1. Chapter 1 4Recons tructi on Era 1 867- 1 877
  2. 2. Essential QuestionsWhat factors contributed to the failure of Reconstruction?
  3. 3. 14.1 - Topics What is Reconstruction? South after the war. Congressional and Presidential plans for Reconstruction. Lincoln’s assassination. Radical Republicans.
  4. 4. Reconstruction The period (1867-1877) during which the former states of the Confederacy were ruled by the Federal government or by local Republican governments.
  5. 5. What did Reconstruction address? How the eleven seceding states would regain self-government and be reseated in Congress The civil status of the former leaders of the Confederacy
  6. 6. What did Reconstruction address? The Constitutional and legal status of freedmen(freed slaves), especially their civil rights and whether they should be given the right to vote. Violent controversy erupted throughout the South over these issues
  7. 7. Devastation to the South Unconditional Surrender of the South The Confederacy had 297 towns and cities with a population of 835,000 Of these, 162 cities and 681,000 people were at one point occupied by the Union armies. Some cities were totally destroyed.
  8. 8. Devastation to the South 2/3 of Southern railroads were reached by Union forces. 2/5 of the South’s livestock was killed, and farm equipment was damaged. With the emancipation of the slaves the entire economy of the South had to be rebuilt.
  9. 9. Devastation to the South QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  10. 10. Plans for Reconstruction Lincoln’s Ten-Percent Plan - Proclamation of amnesty and reconstruction. Declared slavery was abolished. After 10% of those on the 1860 voting list took an oath of allegiance, the state could form a new state government and gain representation in congress.
  11. 11. Plans for Reconstruction Lincoln was more concerned with the future, then the past. This moderate or lenient approach angered many Radical Republican that thought the South should receive a harsher punishment.
  12. 12. Plans for Reconstruction Radical Republicans - A minority of Republicans who wanted to destroy the political power of former slave holders and give African-Americans full citizenship and the right to vote.
  13. 13. Radical Republicans Argued that secession had destroyed statehood but the Constitution still extended its authority and its protection over individuals, as in existing U.S. territories.
  14. 14. Radical Republicans They viewed secession as having left the states in a status like new territories. The Republicans sought to prevent Southern politicians from "restoring the historic subordination of Negroes".
  15. 15. Radical Republicans Since slavery was abolished, the 3/5 Compromise no longer applied to counting the population of blacks. After the 1870 census, the South would gain numerous additional representatives in Congress, based on the population of freedmen.
  16. 16. Radical Republicans Some thought if the South were allowed to simply restore its previous established powers, that the reward of treason will be an increased representation.
  17. 17. Plans for Reconstruction Wade-Davis Bill- Proposed by Benjamin Wade- OH & Henry Winter Davis of Maryland Supported by Radical Republicans Proposed Congress be in charge of Reconstruction, not the president.
  18. 18. Plans for Reconstruction Wade-Davis Bill- Declared a majority(over 50%)had to take an ironclad oath to the Union. President Lincoln pocket vetoed this bill, which enraged Radical Republicans.
  19. 19. Radical Republicans  Thaddeus Stevens Charles Sumner QuickTimeª and a QuickTimeª and a decompressor decompressorare needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
  20. 20. Assassination of Lincoln April 14, 1865. Occurred 5 days after Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered. First U.S. president to be assassinated. Took place at the Ford’s Theatre in Washington DC.
  21. 21. Assassination of Lincoln
  22. 22. Assassination of Lincoln  Assassinated by John Wilkes Booth QuickTimeª and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
  23. 23. 14.1 Quiz What was the purpose of Reconstruction? Name one Radical Republican. How did Radical Republicans think the South should be dealt with after the Civil War? Name 2 plans for reconstruction and explain how they were different.
  24. 24. 14.2 Topics Andrew Johnson & Reconstruction Black Codes 13th & 14th Amendment. Civil Rights Bill Freedman’s Bureau
  25. 25. 13th Amendment December 1865 The Thirteenth Amendment finalized the abolition of slavery in the United States, which had begun with President Lincoln issuing the Emancipation in 1863.
  26. 26. Andrew Johnson Johnson took over, Lincoln’s VP, in April of 1865. Former Democrat and slave owner, from Tennessee, identified with poor white Southerners. Had little influence within the Republican Party. Lacked the political skills of Lincoln.
  27. 27. Andrew Johnson QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  28. 28. Andrew Johnson Like Lincoln, Johnson was lenient on letting the South back into the Union. QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  29. 29. Andrew Johnson Johnson plan, like Lincoln’s failed to address needs of former slaves - land, voting right, equal protection under the law. Johnson suggested that Southern state should refuse to pay their war debts, nullify their secessions and adopt the 13th Amendment.
  30. 30. Andrew Johnson Johnson did not demand these terms. South Carolina repealed rather then nullified its ordinance of secession. Mississippi refused to adopt the 13th Amendment. Both of these states refused to repudiate their war time debts.
  31. 31. Andrew Johnson Southerners who were willing to start anew under the Union felt abandoned. Johnson pardoned many political leaders of the Confederacy, allowing for most of them to take part in the federal government. Both African- Americans and Radical Republican were furious.
  32. 32. Black Codes Soon the new Southern state governments began to adopt “Black Codes”. Based on old slave codes, Black Codes were meant to deal with newly freed slaves in the South. They strictly limited freedom of African- Americans.
  33. 33. Black Codes African- Americans could not vote. Were not allowed to marry whites. In some states they could only be witness to only trials involving other blacks and could not bring up charges on whites. It restricted African-Americans to agricultural jobs or domestic service.
  34. 34. Black Codes Northerners began to wonder if the Civil War had been fought merely to preserve slavery under a new name.
  35. 35. Confederates in Office By the time Congress met in December of 1865, Johnson had been president for 7 months. 10 of the 11 Southern states had formed new governments. Southern States would return to Congress with more members then when they left the Union.
  36. 36. Confederates in Office When congressmen from the “reformed” states tried to take their seats in Congress, Moderate and Radical Republicans joined together and shut them out. They were not members of congress because Southern States were not states at all since they left the Union.
  37. 37. Confederates in Office Republicans said, that even if the Southern states followed the president’s plan, he did not have the power to make the rules. Only Congress(a Republican congress) had the power to make the rules.
  38. 38. Confederates in Office Congress set up a Committee of Reconstruction, to draw up its own plan. This would address problems faced by both the North and the South.
  39. 39. Freedmen’s Bureau The first bill extended and enlarged the Freedmen’s Bureau.•The Bureau had been setup 6 weeks before Lincoln’sdeath. QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.•Meant to help get Southernfarms back in order and helpfreedmen start a new life.
  40. 40. Freedmen’s Bureau Handed out millions of free meals to black and white war refugees. Built hospitals in the South. Helped bring thousands of white Southerners back onto farms. Helped freedmen find jobs.
  41. 41. Freedmen’s Bureau Most importantly it built schools and provided teachers to give African- Americans the education they were denied under slavery. Set up more than 4,000 schools, 40 hospitals, 61 industrial institutions and 74 teacher training centers.
  42. 42. Freedmen’s Bureau In February 1866 President Johnson vetoed it because it gave the Bureau the power, through military courts, to deal with any question concerning discrimination or infringement of civil rights.
  43. 43. Civil Right’s Bill Wanted to protect blacks in the South. It allowed the federal government to intervene in state’s affairs to protect the rights of all U.S. citizens. Johnson believed in State rights, and vetoed the bill, stating these affairs could be left to the states.
  44. 44. Civil Rights Bill With this veto and his personal attacks on Radical leaders, Johnson drove moderate Republicans and strengthen the Radical Republicans.
  45. 45. 14th Amendment It defined U.S. citizenship and forbade any state from depriving citizens of their rights and privileges. It reduced the representation of any state that did not allow it adult male citizens to vote.
  46. 46. 14th Amendment It ruled no state should pay should choose to pay its Confederate debt. It stated no one who had held state or federal office under the Union(US), and then supported the Confederacy, could not hold office with out being pardoned by a vote of 2/3 of Congress.
  47. 47. 14th Amendment Finally, the North had given the South clear terms on how to reenter the Union.
  48. 48. 14th Amendment Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
  49. 49. 14th Amendment Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
  50. 50. 14th Amendment Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
  51. 51. 14th Amendment Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
  52. 52. 14th Amendment Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
  53. 53. Carpetbagger: Northerners who went to the South to acquire wealth or power during Reconstruction, after the Civil WarScalawag:An insulting name for white Southerners who were Republican during the Reconstruction era.