Levels of thinking and reasoning [modo de compatibilidad]


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Levels of thinking and reasoning [modo de compatibilidad]

  1. 1. Levels of Thinking and ReasoningReasoning The Bloom-Marzano Hierarchy
  2. 2. APHORISM OF THE MONTH If you always do what you always did, you will alwaysdid, you will always get what you always got.
  3. 3. APHORISM OF THE MONTH One of the defining characteristics of human beings is held to be their capacity to learn from experience, yet how often is the response to delivery failure to increase the exhortation just to do better or work smarter, rather than think of another way of tackling the issue? Even the current fashion for scenario planning tends to reinforce this. It is customary to have three scenarios: business as usualbusiness as usual smart working with performance management doing things differently The problem is that, like circus animals trained to jump through hoops, health planners and managers don’t know what they don’t know, and may have a limited repertoire of response to complex problems. The only way to break new ground in to lateral problem solving is by creating environments that embrace diverse analysis, ideas, and experiences. JRA
  4. 4. Objectives for Today 1. Define the levels of thinking and reasoning used in the Standard Course of Study and testing at the Altamira International School. 2. Generate content-specific examples of the levels of thinking and reasoning.of thinking and reasoning. 3. Apply the levels of thinking and reasoning to classroom practice. 4. Evaluate effective use of the levels of thinking and reasoning in classroom practice.
  5. 5. Pre-Assessment On your own paper, construct a circle map. Within your circle write down all you knowdown all you know about Bloom’s Taxonomy. Bloom’s Taxonomy
  6. 6. Bloom’s Taxonomy 1956: Benjamin Bloom publishes a small volume called Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain.Domain.
  7. 7. Benjamin Bloom wanted a way to Bloom publishes his Taxonomy of Educators use the taxonomy to write instructional objectives. Assessments Bloom’s Taxonomy wanted a way to classify educational goals. his Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Assessments are designed according to the taxonomy. State curricula were written according to the taxonomy.
  8. 8. Bloom’s Taxonomy Bloom’s Taxonomy was updated in 2001 by Anderson and Krathwol. ?
  9. 9. Taxonomy Redefined Problems with Bloom’s taxonomy: Oversimplifies the nature of thought and its relationship to learning (Furst, 1994). The taxonomy implied a hierarchy of thought processes running from lower to higher which did not hold up in research studies (Marzano, 2001).
  10. 10. Learning: What We Now Know Learning must take into account the types of knowledge Learning must take into account the learner’s control of types of knowledge as well as the thinking processes required for manipulating that knowledge. learner’s control of his or her own thinking as well as the role of emotion and interest in acquiring knowledge.
  11. 11. The Birth of Marzano’s Hierarchy Robert Marzano set out to repair the deficiencies of Bloom’s Taxonomy in the 1990s. The result was Designing a New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (2001). Revised as The New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (2006)
  12. 12. Marzano and Altamira Altamira’s program requires testing, and teachers, as test designers, need a taxonomy for aligning the goals and objectives to test questions so that they could teach what they test and test whatcould teach what they test and test what they teach.
  13. 13. Marzano and Altamira Misconception Alert: Instead, AIS has hybridized Marzano’s Altamira will not fully adopt Marzano’s hierarchy. hybridized Marzano’s work with the original Bloom’s Taxonomy.
  14. 14. Reflection What is the most important “big idea” uncovered in the previous slides? What would be different about the way we teach and assess if we all knew this “big idea”? In groups, come to consensus about one “big idea” from the material.
  15. 15. A Closer Look at Bloom and Marzano Who can name the levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy? Knowledge Comprehension Bloom’s Taxonomy Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation
  16. 16. Bloom-Marzano Hybrid Knowing Organizing Applying Hybrid Taxonomy Applying Analyzing Generating Integrating Evaluating
  17. 17. Similarities and Differences In groups, construct a Double-Bubble map comparing the Bloom Hierarchy to the hybrid Marzano-Bloom hierarchy.
  18. 18. Bloom – Marzano Hybrid: Definitions LEVEL DEFINITION Knowing Gathering, storing, and recalling information Organizing Arranging and classifying informationOrganizing Arranging and classifying information Applying Using information in a new situation Analyzing Examining relationships among parts Generating Producing new meaning or ideas Integrating Combining information Evaluating Judging the quality of information
  19. 19. Bloom-Marzano Hybrid: Definitions LEVEL DEFINITION Knowing Gathering, storing, and recalling information Organizing Arranging and classifying information Low-Level Cognitive Tasksinformation Applying Using information in a new situation Analyzing Examining relationships among parts Generating Producing new meaning or ideas Integrating Combining information Evaluating Judging the quality of information Tasks High-Level Cognitive Tasks
  20. 20. Part 1: Low-Level Cognitive Tasks LEVEL DEFINITION Knowing Gathering, storing, and recallingKnowing Gathering, storing, and recalling information Organizing Arranging and classifying information Applying Using information in a new situation
  21. 21. What does “Knowing” mean? describe identify label use the senses to Knowing list recall information store information in memory senses to observe
  22. 22. “Knowing” Objectives ESL 3, NL 3.02 – Recognize some high frequency words in simple or patterned text. Science 2, 1.03 – Observe the different stages of an insect life cycle. Social Studies 5, 4.03 – Describe the contributions of people of diverse cultures throughout the history of the United States.
  23. 23. “Knowing” Questions What is federalism? A. a form of government with elected representatives B. a division of power between the national and state governments C. a belief in the idea of national sovereignty D. a form of government in which elected officials make all economic decisions
  24. 24. “Knowing” Questions What led to the decline of soapstone mining? A. Dwindling supplies B. Discovery of mica C. Preference for pottery D. Interest in gold mining
  25. 25. What does “Organizing” mean? arrange information comparing sequencing in order or by Organizing information in an ordered way contrasting classifying in order or by a criteria changing the format of information
  26. 26. “Organizing” Objectives Social Studies 6, 9.01 – Trace the historical development of governments . . . ELA 8, 3.03 – Evaluate and create arguments by arranging details, examples, and reasons effectively. Advanced Functions, 1.02 – Compare distributions of univariate data.
  27. 27. “Organizing” Questions Why are parallel circuits, rather than series circuits, commonly used in wiring houses? A. They allow appliances to operate separately. B. They are cheaper. C. They have a higher total resistance. D. The voltage drop varies with each resistor.
  28. 28. “Organizing” Questions
  29. 29. What does “Applying” mean? using prior knowledge knowing when to use knowledge transferring knowledge from one Applying knowledge in a new situation bringing together information to solve problems from one field to another recognizing similarities and differences between situations
  30. 30. “Applying” Objectives Healthy Living K, 2.06 – Demonstrate how to get help in an emergency. Theatre Arts 6, 3.02 -- Plan and create a simple set for formal or informal dramatic presentations.for formal or informal dramatic presentations. Spanish for Native Speakers 1, 3.07 -- Apply understanding of conventional written and spoken expressions in a variety of settings by using appropriate and exact words to influence reactions, perceptions, and beliefs.
  31. 31. “Applying” Questions Which propaganda technique is represented by the quote “My opponent is soft on crime!”? A. Name calling B. Bandwagon C. Glittering generality D. Stacked cards
  32. 32. “Applying” Questions A boulder falls from a cliff. What is the boulder’s acceleration during the fifth second of the fall? A. 2.0 m/s2 B. 9.8 m/s2 C. 20.0 m/s2 D. 98 m/s2
  33. 33. Review and Application In your groups, you will be given some sample objectives and test questions. Identify the thinking skill level for the objectives and test questions. Be prepared to defend your thoughts to the whole group.
  34. 34. Categorizing Objectives and Questions - A Caveat OFTEN, categorizing a question or an objective requires that you understand the amount of prior knowledge needed to process the objective at a particular level.particular level. Objectives in higher grades often assume prior knowledge, so what may be “knowing” to you is categorized as “applying” by them.
  35. 35. Strange Verbs – Skills and Cognitive Demands? To what levels do you assign the following verbs? Acquire... Interact... Share knowledge... Verbs that often call for the student to do something imply Share knowledge... Investigate... Develop... Explore... Compose... Observe... something imply procedural knowledge. Procedural knowledge requires the use of information to complete a task. Many times this is nothing more than application.
  36. 36. Part 2: High-Level Cognitive Tasks LEVEL DEFINITION Analyzing Examining relationships among partsAnalyzing Examining relationships among parts Generating Producing new meaning or ideas Integrating Combining information Evaluating Judging the quality of information
  37. 37. What does “Analyzing” mean? cause and effect identifying the attributes of things identifying parts of Analyzing identifying the main idea parts of objects identifying relationships and patterns identifying logical errors
  38. 38. “Analyzing” Objectives Physics, 8.01 – Analyze the nature of electrical charges. US History, 6.01 – Examine the factors that led to the United States taking an increasingly active role in world affairs. Visual Arts 7, 3.04 -- Explore and discuss the value of intuitive perceptions in the problem-solving process.
  39. 39. “Analyzing” Questions A cell with 5% solute concentration is placed in a beaker with a 1% solute concentration. What will happen to the cell over time? A. The cell will gain H2O and expand. B. The cell will lose H2O and shrink. C. The cell will both gain and lose equal amounts of H2O; thus, it will remain the same size. D. The cell will undergo no exchange of H2O with its surroundings.
  40. 40. “Analyzing” Questions Why did the horse in “The Runaway Stallion” most likely run through the water to the opposite bank? A. He was afraid that Jeff was trying to capture him.capture him. B. He wanted the oats in the bucket. C. He needed to cool down in the water before eating. D. He was frightened by a noise that Hank made.
  41. 41. What does “Generating” mean? exploring hypothetical situations producing new meaning or ideas inferring new meaning Generating elaborating by adding examples or details meaning predicting outcomes drawing a conclusion
  42. 42. “Generating” Objectives Theatre Arts 6, 5.04 -- Infer meaning from a script to create characters. Science 8, 5.05 -- Use maps, ground truthing and remote sensing to make predictions regardingremote sensing to make predictions regarding changes over time, land use, urban sprawl, and resource management. Civics, 2.02 – Explain how the United States Constitution grants and limits the authority of public officials and government agencies.
  43. 43. “Generating” Questions Which best explains why the author includes this line in the play? HANNAH: There are tougher questions we have to deal with than baseball movies . . . or which river is the longest . . . or . . .which river is the longest . . . or . . . A. To create sympathy for Jay B. To reveal Hannah’s wisdom C. To foreshadow the choice Jay will have to make D. To reduce the tension building between Jay and Hannah
  44. 44. “Generating” Questions While cleaning a saltwater aquarium, students placed the aquarium plants in a container of distilled water. What effect will this have on the plants? A. The plant cells will separate.A. The plant cells will separate. B. The plant cells will shrink. C. The plant cells will swell. D. The plant cells will remain the same.
  45. 45. What does “Integrating” mean? connecting and combining information Integratingsummarizing generalizing from examples or details restructuring ideas to include new information
  46. 46. “Integrating” Objectives ESL 9-12, IH 4.05 -- Write an organized and focused composition with supporting details on familiar and previously studied topics. US History, 12.01 – Summarize significant events in foreign policy since the Vietnam War. Science 7, 5.05 -- Summarize the genetic transmittance of disease.
  47. 47. “Integrating” Questions Which of the following statements concerning diffusion and active transport is correct? A. Both diffusion and active transport require cell energy.require cell energy. B. Neither diffusion nor active transport require cell energy. C. Diffusion requires cell energy while active transport does not. D. Active transport requires cell energy while diffusion does not.
  48. 48. “Integrating” Questions A house plant is wilting; however, it is still green. What vital resource is it most likely lacking? A. Plant food B. Water C. Sunlight D. Air
  49. 49. What does “Evaluating” mean? judging the reasonableness of information Evaluating establishing criteria for judging checking the accuracy of claims rating ideas by quality
  50. 50. “Evaluating” Objectives Civics, 6.08 – Evaluate methods used by society to address criminal and anti-social behaviors. Algebra II, -- 2.05 Use rational equations to model and solve problems; justify results.and solve problems; justify results. ELA 7, 4.03 -- Develop the stance of a critic by considering and presenting alternative points of view or reasons, remaining fair-minded and open to other interpretations, and creating a critical response/review of a work/topic.
  51. 51. “Evaluating” Questions The scatter plot shows the number of absences in a week for classes of different sizes. Trevor concluded that there is a positive correlation between class size and the number of absences. Which statement best describes why Trevor’s conclusion was incorrect?conclusion was incorrect? A. The largest class does not have the most absences. B. The smallest class does not have the least number of absences. C. The data show no relationship between class size and number of absences. D. The data show a negative relationship between class size and number of absences.
  52. 52. “Evaluating” Questions Which of the following pieces of information is most helpful in supporting the writer’s request for a replacement? A. The writer knew she had the perfect gift for her mother.gift for her mother. B. The writer gave the hand vacuum to her mother for her fortieth birthday. C. The vacuum had no suction. D. The writer and her father read the owner’s manual together.
  53. 53. Review and Application In your groups, will you be given some sample objectives and test questions. Identify the thinking skill level for the objectives and test questions. Be prepared to defend your thoughts to the whole group.
  54. 54. Thoughts for the Classroom Should teachers start at the bottom of the hierarchy and work their way up to more complex levels of thinking? In other words, should we always start with knowing and end up at evaluating?
  55. 55. Some Thoughts for the Classroom “[The] view [that learners must start at the bottom and work toward the top] may be characterized as the ‘climbing the ladder’ model of cognition.” This model is “at odds withThis model is “at odds with contemporary views of the learning process” and may confine students to a boring regimen of “low-level, skill-drill activities, rote memorization of discrete facts, and mind-numbing test prep worksheets.”
  56. 56. Some Thoughts for the Classroom Teachers should incorporate Marzano’s vocabulary into questioning: »Use a variety of questions at different cognitive levels. »Ask different students questions. »Vary the questions asked for each student. »Challenge all students to answer complex questions.
  57. 57. Some Thoughts for the Classroom Use the Marzano structure for developing assessment items: »Write or re-write multiple choice items to match the hierarchy. »Construct open-ended items according to the cognitive demands of the objective.
  58. 58. Some Thoughts for the Classroom Embed using the vocabulary of the hierarchy in everyday work without focusing on the structure itself: »Students do not need to know»Students do not need to know the levels of thinking and reasoning. »Students do need to know what common terms like “verify,” “assess,” “analyze,” and “infer” mean.
  59. 59. Some Thoughts for the Classroom Does posting the objective daily mean that the teachers or the students actually understand it? »NO! NO! NO! NO! »The evidence of understanding of the»The evidence of understanding of the objective comes from how it is “unpacked” in the classroom. »Teachers should work at making objectives “student” friendly and encouraging students to personalize objectives.
  60. 60. Marzano and CITW How does this hierarchy connect to Marzano’s Classroom Instruction that Works? Similarities and Differences Comparing & Classifying = OrganizingDifferences Organizing Metaphors & Analogies = Analyzing and Generating Nonlinguistic Representation All forms of NR can be used at each level of the hierarchy. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Objectives (NC SCOS) Feedback = Analyzing and Evaluating
  61. 61. Thinking Skills Levels: Thinking Maps Knowing Organizing Applying Analyzing Generating Integrating Evaluating
  62. 62. A Few Big Ideas Categorizing an objective or a question often depends on the interpretation of that item as well as the background Since the Bloom- Marzano hierarchy is the language of the SCOS of testing, it is essential that it be understood andbackground knowledge of the student. understood and applied to classroom practice.
  63. 63. A Few Big Ideas Objectives must be “unpacked” to get at what is implied for students to know, understand, and be able to do in the The NC SCOS did not adopt the full Marzano hierarchy, so teachers must pay attention to other critical issues such as metacognition,able to do in the classroom. such as metacognition, emotion, and interest and the roles they play in learning.
  64. 64. Conclusion -- Administration As a result of this information, How will my administrative practice change? What will I look for in lesson plans and observations? How has my understanding of the curriculum and testing changed?
  65. 65. Conclusion -- Teachers As a result of this information, What will I do differently in my classroom assessments? What will I do with my lesson planning? How will I “unpack” my curriculum to get at what students should know, understand, and be able to do?
  66. 66. Conclusion Questions? Comments? Next Steps?