Transgenic crops boon or bane

954 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
954
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
94
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • © Altacit Global 2009 Email: info@altacit.com
  • Transgenic crops boon or bane

    1. 1. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com TRANSGENIC CROPS BOON OR BANE P.ILANANGAI IP CONSULTANT PATENT DEPARTMENT
    2. 2. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com • A transgenic crop plant contains a gene or genes which have been artificially inserted instead of the plant acquiring them through pollination. The inserted gene sequence (known as the transgene) may come from a completely different species. • Traditionally, only plants of the same or closely related species can be crossed to obtain a desired genetic outcome. • By using transgenic technology, plant breeders can combine desirable traits and genes from different species of plants and even from other organisms, such as bacteria. • Plant breeders alter transgenic plants to make them more tolerant of heat, cold, drought, or rain. • The countries that grow more transgenic crops are the United States, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Paraguay, and South Africa. INTRODUCTION
    3. 3. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com • Bt cotton Insecticide sweet corn • Golden rice Tomatoes EXAMPLES
    4. 4. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com • The world population has crossed 650 crores and is predicted to increase further in the coming decades. Ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is going to be a major challenge in the years to come. Genetically modified foods promise to meet this need in a number of ways. • Some scientists and food producers believe that genetically modified (GM) food crops could help solve problems of matching food supply to demand, but many other researchers and health advocates believe that widespread use of genetically modified foods carry health risks and could have a negative impact on the ecosystem. WHY GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS?
    5. 5. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com • The introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds and the use of chemical fertilizers and irrigation provided a much-needed increase in food production levels and a decline in dependence on imports. • However, in the last few decades, the overuse of pesticides and insecticides has led to increasing health hazards and depletion of overall soil quality. • While some experts believe that the way forward for India is to take organic farming seriously, others argue that GM crops will lead to a second agricultural revolution in the country. • contd.. INDIA AND GM CROPS
    6. 6. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com • However, there are many in India who remain convinced that GM crops are not only unsafe for consumption, but also inappropriate for a primarily agrarian economy. Concerns include unknown or unintended environmental and ecological hazards, unknown effects on human and animal health, as well as economic implications for small and marginal farmers forced to buy expensive seeds on a yearly basis. • Bt cotton, a patented product of Monsanto, remains the first and only GM crop to be commercially cultivated in India, in 2002. • contd…
    7. 7. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com • Following Bt cotton, the Indian Government tried to introduce Bt brinjal (eggplant) towards the end of 2009. Bt brinjal is the first transgenic edible crop to be introduced into India.
    8. 8. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF GM PLANTS Pest resistance: •Large use of chemical pesticides •Food treated with pesticides has potential health hazards •Use of pesticides and fertilisers poison the water supply and cause harm to the environment. GM foods can help eliminate the application of chemical pesticides. CONSEQUENCES OF TRANSGENIC CROPS
    9. 9. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com Herbicide tolerance: •Use of large quantities of different herbicides (weed- killer) to destroy weeds Crop plants genetically-engineered to be resistant to one very powerful herbicide could help prevent environmental damage by reducing the amount of herbicides needed. Disease resistance: • There are many viruses, fungi and bacteria that cause plant diseases. Plant biologists are working to create plants with genetically-engineered resistance to these diseases.
    10. 10. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com Cold tolerance: •Unexpected frost can destroy sensitive seedlings in case of crops grown in higher altitudes like apples in Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir, potatoes in Shimla, and saffron in Kashmir. An antifreeze gene from cold-water fish indeed has been introduced into some plants such as potato. Drought tolerance/salinity tolerance: •As the world population grows and more land is utilized for housing instead of food production, farmers will need to grow crops in locations previously unsuited for cultivation. Creating plants that can withstand long periods of drought or high salt content in soil and groundwater will help people to grow crops in formerly inhospitable places.
    11. 11. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com Nutrition: •Malnutrition is common in third world countries where impoverished people rely on a single crop such as rice for the main staple of their diet. If rice could be genetically engineered to contain additional vitamins and minerals, nutrient deficiencies could be alleviated. Pharmaceuticals: •Genetically modified crops are under development to produce and deliver vaccines. This is vitally important to protecting the health of people in developing nations and preventing epidemics.
    12. 12. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com POTENTIAL RISKS OF GM PLANTS •Genetic modification is fundamentally different from selective breeding because it transfers genes between species in ways that could never happen naturally. •Genetic engineering alters the fundamental composition of crops. While natural crossbreeding restricts the types of hybrids that can be produced, genetic engineering allows for gene transfers between vastly unrelated species, such as fish and tomatoes. • contd..
    13. 13. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com • Risks include potential health problems for human beings, such as new or more virulent allergens and carcinogens, and increased resistance to antibiotics. Especially babies are more vulnerable to developing allergies. Children in the US and Europe have developed life-threatening allergies to peanuts and other foods. • Risks to the environment include the unintended transfer of genes to other species, decreased biodiversity. • Inadvertent cross-pollination could lead to the creation of “super weeds”; insect-resistant crops could harm insect species that are not pests. • Corporations create and patent GM seeds, they will control the market. This circumstance would be more likely to increase world hunger than to alleviate it. • contd..
    14. 14. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com • Creating and patenting new life forms is unethical. • It is the obligation of the technology innovators, producers, and the government to assure the public of the safety of the novel foods that they offer as well as their benign effect on the environment. • Now, research is focused on “second-generation” GM crops that will feature increased nutritional and/or industrial traits. These crops will have more direct benefits to consumers. Examples include: Rice enriched with iron, vitamin A and E, and lysine Potatoes with higher starch content, and inulin Edible vaccines in maize, banana and potatoes Healthier oils from soybean and canola Allergen-free nuts.
    15. 15. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com CASE LAWS • Monsanto Co v McFarling • The court upheld Monsanto's patent licensing practice of forbidding farmers from saving seeds from GM crops for replanting. • Monsanto’s Patent on Method of Producing Transgenic Plants refused by IPAB • Monsanto’s Indian patent application 2407/DEL/NP/2006 on transgenic plants with heat/salt/draught tolerant plants is rejected by IPAB. The subject patent application was rejected on lack of inventive step under 2(1)(ja) in view of three prior art references and under section 3(d).
    16. 16. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com • Usually GM seeds are patented so the farmer has to buy the seeds again from the company year after year. • There are natural ways to grow crops and still keep the yields high for long term. • Organic food and natural herbicides usage is also becoming quiet popular in European countries. • Stay Organic, Stay Natural, Stay Healthy!!!!
    17. 17. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com THANK YOU

    ×