Superior sales and distribution by itself can create a monopoly, even
with no product differentiation. The converse is not true. No matter
how strong your product—even if it easily fits into already
established habits and anybody who tries it likes it immediately—
you must still support it with a strong distribution plan.
— Peter Thiel, Zero to One
9WHAT IS WRONG WITH THIS TWEET?
HINT: IT WAS TWEETED IN SPRING 2011
THE MANY CONTEXTS OF 10
CULTURAL CONTEXT IS KEY
11IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING
PUSH AND PULL
These compel firms to
expand beyond their
country of origin.
firms into foreign
PUSH AND PULL
Domestic market may become too saturated.
Consumer demand patterns may change over time.
Increasingly restrictive government regulations may force
a firm to expand overseas
PUSH AND PULL
With a global population of over 7 billion, the global
market place is packed with endless opportunities.
Cheap labor is one of the chief cost driven factors that
are attracting MNCs to China.
Entering the global marketplace presents an opportunity
to learn the market practices in the industry.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRADITIONAL AND
THE DEVIL IS IN THE DETAILS
What your promotional
objectives should be
depends on the level of
familiarity a market has
with your product.
Contents of the promotional
message will have to change
depending on the cultural and
social values of the market.
medium is more effective
varies from country to
be copied and
Mistakes in International
Promotions Occur due to
Problems in One or More
Steps in the Communication
SOME IMPORTANT DIMENSIONS OF
Getting straight to the point
vs beating around the bush
Differences in norms and
Varying levels of female
Focus on celebrities vs focus on
historical and cultural lineage
23THE IMC PROMOTIONAL MIX
FLEXIBLE, HIGHLY ADAPTABLE STRATEGY THAT IS CONSISTENT AT ITS CORE
occurs at the
regions which is
by other media.
Marketing activities which aim to stimulate consumer purchases and improve retailer or
middlemen effectiveness and cooperation. They usually occur at the point of sale.
Time and sector-defined marketing events. Aimed primarily at B2B Consumers.
to introduce their
exports into a new
Can create demand
for products from
both the suppliers’
side and the
PERSONAL SELLINGFace to face interaction between seller and buyer for the purpose of
sale of an offering.
Very Hard to
Say No to a
The need to
DIRECT SELLINGMulti-Channel Approach that Focuses on Customer, Data Analytics and Accountability. Online
and Mobile Marketing is a big focus.
products for whom
cultural factors do
not play as large a
chance to measure
actual impact of
A concerted effort on part of the company to
generate goodwill among all relevant stakeholders.
ADVERTISEMENTSThe most widely used—and possibly the most potent– promotional
tool in the international IMC mix.
BARRIERS TO INTERNATIONAL PROMOTION
1 Gross translation problems
Subtle distinctions from language to language
Different accents and dialects
2 Values, customs, morals, religious views
3 Some consider advertisements too crass.
Transformational vs Informational
4 Comparative ads banned in most countries
There is no
There are subtle
theory provides the
framework to understand
Marketers fail when
they do not understand
IMC is the most
effective way to address
Even then, several
and dedicated local
teams are key to