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Image of the City


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Urban Design-Perceptual Dimension

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Image of the City

  1. 1. a schema : describes an organized pattern of thought that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them Differentiate by : 1. Gender 2. Age 3. Culture 4. Religion 5. Personal Experience
  2. 2. Perception process : Perception is a complex processing, involves gathering, organizing and making sense of information about the environment. It is shaped in five steps: 1. Pay attention 2. Thinking – organizing – keeping information 3. Giving a meaning 4. Evaluation : preferring or not 5. Recognizing and using
  3. 3. The users of the city react with urban environment using senses They don’t have the same strength but we use them all in Urban perception
  4. 4. Mental image : Mental image properties : The overall mental image of an urban environment will be: 1. Partial : not covering the whole city 2. Simplified : omitting a great deal of information 3. Unique : each individual has his/her own 4. Distorted : not necessary has real distance or direction. The image which the user form in his mind about the architectural and urban components of the city and their places so he can direct his motion through the city after that.
  5. 5. Mental image : Differences in environmental perception depend on factors like: • age, • gender, • ethnicity, • lifestyle, • the physical, social and culture environment in which the person lives and was raised.
  6. 6. Mental Image • Differs from one to another but • Sometimes there are some common themes between a lot of users these themes are called image regularities image regularities The Common urban components which are used by different users to form their mental image about the city
  7. 7. The image of the city: The key work in the field of urban imagery is kevin lynch’s the image of the city (1960) based on mental mapping techniques, and interviews with residents of Boston, Jersey city and Los Angles. Initially interested in legibility (how people orientate themselves and navigate within cities)
  8. 8. The image of the city: Based on of individuals images, lynch drives five key physical elements of the city : 1. Paths 2. Edges 3. Nodes 4. Districts 5. Landmarks
  9. 9. 1. Paths : Paths are the channels along which observers move (streets, transit lines, canals, etc.).
  10. 10. Why paths are important elements in the city image? * Concentration of uses *Containing significant buildings and facades
  11. 11. * paths are the most important elements in people’s images : • other elements are arranged and along them. • Unclear paths = unclear city image
  12. 12. 2. Edges : Edges are linear elements that form boundaries between areas or linear breaks in continuity (e.g. shores, railway cuts, walls). Natural edgesManmade edges
  13. 13. 2. Edges : The strongest edges are continuous in form, and often impenetrable to cross movement.
  14. 14. Difference between path and edge Paths Direct the motion to specific direction Edges * Prevent motion in specific direction
  15. 15. 3. Districts: are the medium to large parts of the city which share the same characteristics Style - spatial form, topography- colors- texture, urban fabric….
  16. 16. 3 . Districts : Districts may have Clear edges, or soft uncertain ones gradually fading away into surrounding areas.
  17. 17. 4. Nodes: Strategic points in the city that: • the user can enter it • be directed to many destinations • it can be gathering places or intersection of paths, or places for activities
  18. 18. 5. Land marks : A physical element with UNIQUE AND SPECIAL visual features that has a "point-specific” location, and can be identified from the distance.
  19. 19. What makes landmark a land mark? Singularity: “one in the context” Clarity of general form
  20. 20. None of lynch’s elements exits in isolation : all combine to provide the overall image: • Districts are structures with nodes • Edges define Districts • Paths introduction to Districts • Nodes sprinkled by landmarks …. • Nodes emphasizes the connection between paths All combine to provide the overall image of the city The image of the city:
  21. 21. What creates unclear urban Image ?
  22. 22. What creates unclear urban image: 1. Discontinuous and unclear paths
  23. 23. What creates unclear urban image: 2. Weak Edges
  24. 24. What creates unclear urban image: 3. Lacks of character “No identity” “No iconic elements or landmarks” V.S
  25. 25. What creates unclear urban image: 4. Branching in connections branching Nodes
  26. 26. What creates unclear urban image: 5. No distinctive districts: V.S
  27. 27. The image of the city: Lynch argued that thee workable environmental images required three attributes : 1. Identity : an object’s distinction from other things 2. Structure : the object’s spatial relation to the observer and other objects 3. Meaning : the object’s meaning for the observer
  28. 28. What purposes does it serve? • Preventing feeling lost • Helping make the city feel like “home”
  29. 29. • So it is important to understand how people think and form their mental impression about the city and the common themes they share to help designers to design urban environment in a clear manner for users