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Compare and contract perenialism and essentialism

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Compare and contract perenialism and essentialism

  1. 1. M Shahbaz Shamas IER (University of the Punjab) All Rights Reserved
  2. 2. Originator:  THE FOUNDER OF THE ESSENTIALIST MOVEMENT WILLIAM.C.BAGLEY(1874-1946)
  3. 3. Major Essentialist authors  Bagley  Briggs  Breed  Kandel  Horne
  4. 4. THREE FACTS OF ESSENTIALISM  BASICALLY ESSENTIALISM FOCUS ON THREE FACTS  EVALUATION OF CARRICULUM  DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ESSENTIAL AND NON ESSENTIAL IN SCHOOL PROGRAMME  ESTABLISHMENT OF TEACHER’S AUTHORITY IN CLASS ROOM.
  5. 5. Goals of education IT EMPHASIZE INSTRUCTION IN NATURAL SCIENCES RATHER THAN NON DESCIPLINES SUCH AS PHILOSOPHY OR COMPARATIVE RELIGION ELEMENTRY STUDENTS RECEIVE INTRUCTION IN SKILLS SUCH AS WRITING , READING, AND COMPUTER
  6. 6. Goals of education EVEN WHILE LEARNING ART AND MUSIC SUBJECTS MOST OFTEN ASSOCIATED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF CREATIVITY THE STUDENT ARE REQUIRED TO MASTER A BODY OF INFORMATION AND BASIC TECHNIQUES GRADUALLY MOVING FROM LESS TO MORE COMPLEX SKILLS AND DETAILED KNOWLEDGE
  7. 7. TEACHER  THE TEACHER IS AN ORGANISER OF LEARNING SITUATIONS WHO TRANSMIT ELEMENTS OF CULTURE AND SCIENCE.
  8. 8. CURRICULUM  THE ESSENTIALIST CURRICULUM”AN IRREDUCIBLE BODY OF KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, ATTITUDES COMMON TO DEMOCRATIC
  9. 9. CLASS ROOM  ESSENTIALIST TEACHER FOCUS HEAVILY ON ACHIEVEMENT TEST SCORES AS A MEAN OF EVALUATING PROGRESS  ESSENTIALIST HOPES THAT WHEN STUDENT LEAVE SCHOOL THEY WILL POSSESS: BASIC SKILL DISCIPLINED PRACTICAL MIND
  10. 10. Classical Realism in Educational Philosophy
  11. 11. Perennialism: major authors  Aristotle  Aquinal  Hutchins  Adler  Livingstone
  12. 12. Perennialism  Allegiance to absolute principles  Permanence is more real than change and more desirable as an ideal  Stability is the most important educational value.
  13. 13. EDUCATION  Education is preparation for life
  14. 14. EDUCATION  Education is preparation for life  Education’s task is to teach eternal truth
  15. 15. Curriculum  Curriculum should be the great works of literature, philosophy, history & science
  16. 16. Strengths and Weaknesses of Perennialism  Assumptions  Curriculum  Methodology  Contexts
  17. 17. Perennialism  People possess and share a common nature that defines them as human beings  Follows Aristotle and Aquinas (Realism)  Rationality of human nature in all times and places  All people may find universal truth and live according to its values  Study classic literature and arts to discover enduring truth and beauty
  18. 18. Perennialism Education  School is an intellectual agency with a primary purpose to develop human reason (greatest happiness comes from exercising and applying reason)  Education should be universal, leading students to discover truth and make logical choices accordingly  Support a general curriculum, not a specialized one, based on valuable skills and subject matter  Critical of “presentism” and specialization that comes too early (general, liberal education should come first)
  19. 19. THANKS YOU
  20. 20. ANY QUESTION?

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