TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 -Mapping Exercise Outcomes– Information channels 4
1.1 - Introduction 4
1.2 - Media 4
1.3 – Other sources of information 11
1.4 – Geographical location and size of the Pakistani community in the UK 14
2 -Mapping Exercise Outcomes– Characteristic of respondents 17
2.1 - Gender 17
2.2 - Age 17
2.3 – Length of stay in Britain 17
2.4 – General information on use of transport, phones and local services 18
3 - Constraints 20
4 - Conclusions and Recommendations 21
The aim of this Mapping Report is to guide IOM’s outreach activities and communications
strategies. The report does not purport to be exhaustive. The Mapping Assistant who
conducted the exercise and wrote the report on behalf of IOM has taken every effort to ensure
accuracy in his/her reporting and the views expressed in this report are his/hers. IOM cannot
be held responsible for any omissions or inaccuracies.
AIM OF THE MAPPING EXERCISE, TARGET GROUP AND METHODOLOGY
The International Organization for Migration carried out a mapping exercise for
Pakistani diaspora in the UK. The purpose of the exercise was to identify the main
channels of information used by the community and location of potential beneficiaries
for the Voluntary Return Programme, open to asylum seekers and irregular migrants.
The ultimate goal of the mapping exercise is to help IOM to improve its
communication strategies with foreign language communities in the United Kingdom
through media articles, advertisements and presentations to community groups.
A Pakistani national was recruited on a part time basis to work on the assignment as
strong language skills and inside knowledge of the community were required for this
kind of exercise.
The exercise spanned 10 weeks between March and May and involved an extensive
process of meetings with community members, organisations and leaders. Extensive
networking helped in identifying media, organisations, and individuals who had
contacts in the Pakistani community.
The research methodology drew heavily upon a similar exercise conducted for the
Brazilian community in the near past. However, a thorough review of the
methodology and the mapping instruments was done to make them specific for the
Pakistani community. The methodology involved the following important steps:
literature review, development of instruments, determining the sample, carrying out
field work, data analysis and preparation of the report based on analysed data.
A review of the existing literature on Pakistani ethnic population in the UK brought
forward important information regarding their location, size and other socio-economic
features of the community. This helped in further refining of the methodology.
A questionnaire consisting 20 questions was prepared in the Urdu language. The
questionnaire was divided into two parts, the first section relates to media channels
and other sources of information (i.e.: voluntary organisations, religious venues,
festivals) available to Pakistanis in the UK and also to the geographical location and
size of the community across the UK. The second section of the questionnaire elicits
demographic information from each respondent such as age, gender and length of
their stay in the UK.
In the process of this exercise, in depth interviews were conducted with the
community leaders (multipliers). Keeping in view the aims of the project, they were
asked about the sources of information the community uses and which are the most
popular. Information about the location and the size of the community was also
After the literature review, it was decided that the survey sample would consist of 100
questionnaires; 10 each from five boroughs of London having the highest Pakistani
population and 10 each from the 5 cities containing a high population of Pakistani
origin. The five London boroughs that have more than 10,000 people of Pakistani
origin are as follows: Brent, Ealing, Newham, Waltham Forest and Redbridge. The
cities that were initially included in the survey were: Oxford, Birmingham,
Manchester, Bradford and Glasgow. However, Glasgow and Birmingham had to be
dropped as no such community organisations could be found who were interested in
facilitating the work. That resulted in achieving a slightly lower number of
questionnaires than was initially planned. A total of 75 questionnaires were collected
during the exercise1
. The data gathered has been analysed and presented in form of
tables and charts in the following sections of the report.
As a result of the mapping exercise IOM created an extensive ‘list of contacts’2
merges data gathered directly from completed questionnaires with information
provided by the multipliers during in-depth interviews. This tool is going to be used
by the Information team at IOM to disseminate information on the voluntary return
programmes to Pakistanis across the country.
1 - MAPPING EXERCISE OUTCOMES
1.1 - Introduction
The first section of the questionnaire was designed to identify the main channels of
information used by Pakistanis in the UK. The questions were divided in three
categories: Media, Other Sources of Information and Information on Other
Community Groups. The details mentioned by the respondents in the questionnaires
for media, organisations, religious venues, schools, restaurants and shops were often
vague. They had to be merged and organised in a structural way along with the
contact details provided by the multipliers. This list of contacts constitutes a real
‘action plan’ for IOM, because it contains details of organisations and agencies with
whom IOM should liaise to increase awareness of the voluntary return programmes
among the Pakistani community in the UK.
1. 2 – Media
Urdu is the most widely used language in the Pakistani community. Punjabi is also
widely understood and spoken, however, the number of people who can read the
Punjabi text is definitely smaller. The reason behind this is that Punjabi is not taught
in schools in Pakistan so, while people can speak it very well, they are unable to read
or write it. There is a substantial number of people whose first language is Potohari3
The number of questionnaires received is not decisive, since these completed questionnaires do not
just represent the view of 75 individuals but the consensus views of various groups and communities.
This document contains confidential information and therefore it is going to be used as an internal
This language is widely spoken but not written and read so much
They are largely based in Bradford and Birmingham. A good number of people can
understand English as well and use mainstream media to access information.
Urdu Punjabi Potohari English
Frequency/ regularity of accessing print and electronic media
It was observed that people from the Pakistani diaspora access both print and
electronic media on a frequent basis. Of the 75 respondents, 64 said that they watched
TV on daily basis. This helped to establish that TV is the most widely and frequently
used media among the Pakistani community. 20 respondents said that they listen to
the radio on a daily basis and 30 respondents said they read newspapers everyday.
Newspapers and TV are also popular forms of media. Of the 4 respondents who said
that they had never read newspaper, one was non-literate and only 2 of the 75
respondents said that they never watched TV.
Daily Often Not very often Never
Since people had the option to give multiple answers the total number of responses
exceeds the respondents for this question4
. Of the total of 96 responses received 65
indicated readership of The Daily Jang. A diagram representing the results is given
Jang The Nation Akhbar-e-watan Asian Age
The Daily Jang and The Nation are two Urdu language daily newspapers published in
London and circulated throughout the UK. All other newspapers are published on a
Jang London: it is part of Pakistan’s largest group of newspapers, the Jang Group
(www.jang.com.pk). It covers national and international news and events, plus news
of the Asian and Pakistani community in the UK and Europe. It was established in
1971. IOM is already advertising in this newspaper.
The Nation: this is also a daily newspaper and according to this survey the second
most widely read newspaper among the Pakistani community. Although the Jang is
the most popular newspaper, a substantial number of Pakistanis read The Nation and
therefore IOM should also consider advertising in this paper.
Akhbar-e-watan : this is a weekly newspaper. At one point, when there were fewer
means of obtaining information on Pakistan, it was a very popular newspaper. Since
the inception of exclusive news channels in Urdu and their easy availability in the UK
popularity of such publications has decreased.
In statistical analysis the term ‘frequency’ is used to indicate multiple answers by respondents E.g.:
Respondent A says: Pakistanis live in London, Cardiff and Birmingham
Respondent B says: Pakistanis live in London, Manchester and Northern Ireland
This will be noted as 6 ‘frequencies’.
Asian Age: this is an English language weekly paper read by British Pakistanis5
. It has
a small readership among the Pakistani community.
In total 76 responses were recorded in this category and 30 of them show that
Pakistanis in the UK listen to the channel ‘Sunrise. BBC Urdu is also listened widely.
However, other than Sunrise channel, there is no other channel that has UK-wide
listeners. Most other channels cater to their local communities. In the recent years, it
has become quite easy to set up small radio stations and large numbers of people are
able to obtain community radio licenses. Some interesting initiatives came to the fore
during in-depth interviews with the multipliers which have been recorded in this
Sunrise BBC Urdu Asian Sound
Spectrum Apni Awaz Others
Sunrise is the most widely listened to radio channel among the Pakistani community.
It is based in Southall and is run by a Sikh of Indian origin. As a result of the mapping
exercise IOM started advertising on this channel.
The interesting thing about this channel is that it broadcasts only for one month during
the year e.g., Muslim holy month Ramzan or Ramdan. It is widely listened to during
that month. It started from Bradford in 1991 and later spread across the UK6
years that followed. It broadcasts from 40 cities across the UK in the month of
Ramzan. It can be a useful medium for short-term advertisement.
Term used to define the people of Pakistani origin born and raised in the UK.
It is a 24-hour radio station based in Bradford. It is very much entrenched in the local
Pakistani community and their issues. The programmes broadcasted cover a wide
range of issues being faced by the community. They offered to get the IOM in to hold
a talk show on their channel. IOM intends to make use of this opportunity in future.
IOM should explore the possibility of advertising with this channel as well because
Bradford is the heart of the Pakistani community in West Yorkshire and the message
aired on this channel can reach thousands of people.
Asian Sound Radio
This radio channel is based in Manchester and is widely listened to by the Pakistanis
living there. It is again an Asian channel rather than a specifically Pakistani channel.
It covers the Urdu, Hindi, and Punjabi speaking communities.
Television is the most widely used medium for accessing information and out of the
75 respondents, 64 said that they watched TV on daily basis. Urdu language news
channels, GEO and ARY are the most widely watched channels. Since these channels
are available through SKY satellite system at a very nominal price, people depend on
them not only for entertainment but also for information about Pakistan and the
Pakistani community in the UK.
GEO has the largest viewership and is based in Pakistan; it is received through SKY-
ARY has an office in London and they record some of their important news and views
programmes in London. Pakistani community leaders in the UK frequently appear on
D.M DIGITAL: this is a community channel and it is based in Manchester. It is
available through SKY Digital satellite. This is the only channel which carries just
UK programmes and adverts
Entertainment channels like Zee TV, B4U etc are also quite popular but their
viewership is far less than the news channels.
There are certain religious and community channels which are quite popular among
communities. For example a channel called MTA, Muslim Television Ahmaddiya, is
the official channel of the Ahmaddiya Community and is widely watched by the
7 7 6
As far as internet access is concerned, 53% of respondents said that they had the
ability to access information from the internet. Those who can access information
from the internet, very often have access available at more than one place: home,
office and sometimes libraries.
BBC Urdu (http://www.bbc.co.uk/urdu/) appears to be the one of most popular
website. Other than that, people also access the websites of main Pakistani
newspapers to access information. There are certain web-sites that have links
available to all major Pakistani newspapers and magazines. The main one is:
There are other sites like www.Pakistandost.com and http://www.e-desinews.com
which are used by Pakistanis for socializing and other lighter purposes.
a. IOM should continue producing information in Urdu and Punjabi language
because they appear to be the most preferred languages of the community for
b. IOM advertisements appear in The Daily Jang newspaper which is the largest
Urdu language newspaper in the UK. Survey results show that it is the most
widely read newspaper as well. IOM should continue advertising regularly in
c. IOM should also consider advertising in The Nation.
d. The questionnaires results show that television is most widely and frequently
used medium of accessing information. However, D.M DIGITAL is the only
Pakistani channel based in the UK (Manchester), and IOM should consider
advertising on this satellite channel.
e. IOM advertisements are broadcast on Sunrise radio channel. This channel is
listened to by the Pakistani community across the UK therefore IOM should
continue advertising here. However, the possibilities of advertising with
smaller radio channels that have regional coverage should also be explored,
for example Apni Awaz and Asian Sound Radio.
f. Radio programmes on smaller channels should also be arranged. IOM already
received offers from such channels which can be an inexpensive way of
reaching a large audience as most of the smaller channels do need programmes
especially if they are broadcasting 24 hours a day.
g. IOM could explore the possibility of advertising in one of the websites
indicated by respondents.
1. 3 - Other sources of information
Pakistani Community Organizations and Networks
Pakistanis constitutes the second largest ethnic minority in Britain after the Indian
one. Cities like Bradford, Manchester, Birmingham and London have big Pakistani
population and the community enjoys considerable social and political influence in
these areas. There are many organisations that are working within the community on
different social issues. However, it was observed that a lot of networking takes place
on religious venues like mosques, dars7
and Friday prayers. Some of the
important gatherings of Pakistanis also take place around the religious occasions like
Eid Milad-un-Nabi (prophet’s birth anniversary) and other two Eids. Although large
crowds of people can be accessed on such occasions, given the sanctity of such
events, IOM should explore events and places that are secular in nature. Although
some religious element is always found in most of the community organisations
working for Pakistanis, there are groups that have a more secular approach.
There are many community centres which are run and maintained by Pakistanis.
- Pakistani Community Centre in Willesden Green: this centre is dedicated to the
needs of the Pakistani community in this area. Regular weekly meetings of
different Pakistani groups are held here. They also run special programmes for
children during vacations and Friday dinners for the community members are
also served. They have facilitated the mapping work in the Brent area and are
willing to cooperate with IOM in the future. A big Pakistan Day programme is
also organized by this centre every year, so IOM can put its stall for such event.
Leaflets and information material can also be placed here.
- Newham is another area having a vast Pakistani population and according to
informal accounts, it’s the first place visited by the majority of irregular
immigrants arrived in the United Kingdom. Unlike their other compatriots in
Brent, who are well-settled and well off, Pakistanis in Newham are working class
and deprived. IOM met two groups: the Newham Muslim Citizens Association
(50+) and Asian Ladies Group (50+). Asian Ladies Group was very supportive
and invited the mapping assistant to their meeting and provided full access to
their members. The Newham Muslim Citizens Association also met the mapping
assistant, however, some of their members already knew about the Voluntary
Return Programme and they showed suspicion and lack of support towards the
- Bradford: the Pakistani community in Bradford is close-knit and settled for a
long time. There are many groups working in Bradford and they were very
helpful and supportive of the mapping exercise. Generally, people go to their
local councilors for advice and support; in Bradford many local councilors are of
Meetings where the Coran is explained
A specially organised event where songs in praise of the prophet Mohammad are sung
Pakistani origin. It would be useful if Local Council members were approached
by IOM for outreach activities. Some of the initial contacts have already been
established in this regard. Two organizations which facilitated IOM’s work in
this area Asian Poetry Recording Group and Bazm-e-Urdu.
- Manchester: the Pakistani community in Manchester is also well established and
there are many organizations with their own buildings and run community
centres, mostly in Rochdale and Oldham. IOM’s work was facilitated by the
Pakistani Refugee Organisation (PRO) which is linked to IOM’s partner
organisation Refugee Action. Most of their members are asylum seekers and
irregular immigrants. The Pakistani Community in suburbs is well-settled and
organisations here run special programmes for children on holiday. Sunday
dinners are also served here for the community members. Information material
can be place here for wider dissemination.
Pakistan Welfare Association is also a very well established organization here.
Although their representatives held a meeting with the mapping assistant and the
questionnaires were given to them, they did not return them. Contact should be
kept with this organization to have access to the large number of people who take
part in its activities.
Oxford: Anjuman-e-Adab is a very active organization among Pakistanis in
Oxford, which facilitated the IOM mapping work in this area. Pakistanis in
Oxford are rich and well settled. The Cowley Road Mosque, which is huge and
beautiful, is a proof of this. Details of all organisations contacted during the
course of the field work and where people go for advice and help are attached as
Annex ‘A’ (confidential to IOM).
Preferred Channel of Information
Despite the fact that Pakistani diaspora in the UK has access to all kind of media
sources, a large number of people still rely on word of mouth for information.
Newspaper and radio are also important channels of information for the community.
Above all the single most important source of information for people is television.
Some people also make use of the internet to access information. A diagram depicting
the response is given below. Since the respondents could give multiple responses to
this question, 256 frequencies were recorded from the 75 respondents.
Common source of information
23%Word of mouth
Leaflets in Urdu
Word of mouth
Leaflets in English
Leaflets in Urdu
Location of Publicity Material
Respondents were asked about the locations which in their opinion were suitable for
publicising information. Once again, they were given the option of giving multiple
responses so the frequencies recorded are illustrated in the diagram below:
Location of publicity material
Libraries appear to be the most popular places for such information and material. A
good number of people also consider bus and train stations, supermarkets and post
offices as appropriate places for displaying such information.
a. IOM should place its information material in community centres run by the
b. Areas where more irregular immigrants are found should be made the focus of
attention and efforts should be made to identify organizations that might be
interested in facilitating the mapping exercise.
c. IOM should follow up with those organisations which have shown interest in
facilitating the work.
d. Consistent networking and socializing takes place in religious venues and
around religious occasions: IOM should analyse the pros and cons of
networking with mosques.
1.4-Geographical location and size of the Pakistani community in the UK
According to the 2001 Census, Pakistanis are the second largest ethnic group in Great
Britain after the Indian. The total population of Pakistanis in England and Wales was
e.g., 1.3 percent of the total population and 16.1 percent of the total minority
ethnic population. However, there are vast differences10
in the official statistics and
the informal estimates gathered during the mapping exercise. These differences are on
two counts 1) five years have passed since the last census took place and statistics
have actually changed and 2) that official statistics do not include irregular
immigrants. Below is given a chart11
, of the Pakistani population in the Greater
London. However, according to informal sources the population of Pakistanis is far
greater than these numbers in London.
Pakistani Ethnic Population in London12
Among the United Kingdom cities, London has the largest population of ethnic
minorities. According to 2001 census, there were 142 thousand people of Pakistani
origin living in London and they were distributed in various inner and outer London
boroughs. The population of Pakistanis in inner and outer London boroughs
calculated on the basis of 2001 census is presented in Table 9:. 13
London Total population Pakistani
Inner London 2,766,114 43,559
Outer London 4,405,977 99,190
Total 7,172,091 142,749
State of the Cities Report , 2006, P 23, Deptt for Communities and Local Government
In order to see the distribution of this population per boroughs, refer to tables attached in Annex B.
The breakdown of population in boroughs, based on the 2001 Census, shows the
population in the borough of Brent and Newham as 10, 626 and 20,644 respectively.
When a verification of these figures gathered during the literature review was done
during the fieldwork, vast differences were found between the official statistics and
informal estimates as shown in the table below:
Borough Official Statistics Census 2001 Informal estimates
Newham 20,644 30,000
Brent 10,626 25,000
These informal estimates have been prepared according to the figures given by the
community leaders and members living in these areas.
UK Wide Results
In response to the question on size and the location of Pakistanis across the UK, 58
out of 75 said that they had knowledge about the various locations where Pakistanis
lived; however, 17 respondents did not answer the question. Locations that were
indicated in these responses were in tandem with the findings of the literature review.
These responses helped in pinpointing the exact location of the community in a large
city or borough. Although a large number of respondents gave information on the
location of the community, however, they failed to provide information on the size of
the community and responses gathered in this regard were very general.
Below is a list of locations that people identified during the survey as having a
sizeable Pakistani population: Birmingham, Bradford, Bolton, Chester, Derby,
Dundee, Glasgow, Leytonstone, Leeds, Lea Bridge, Luton, Leyton, Manchester,
Oxford, Sheffield, and Ilford. In London: Tower Hamlets, Barking, Blackburn, Brent,
Ealing, Hounslow, Newham, Southall and Walthamstow.
According to 2001 Census, the total population of Pakistani origin in Wales and
England was 747,285. There is a sizable population of Pakistanis in Scotland
especially in Glasgow and Dundee. No information was found on the community in
Northern Ireland. .15
Source: The British Library http://www.bl.uk/collections/business/asiandemographics.html
2 - MAPPING EXERCISE OUTCOMES
Characteristic of respondents
The second section of the questionnaire was designed to gather baseline data from
each respondent such as age, gender, length of the stay in the UK and most
frequently-used means of transport and communication. The purpose of getting
information on means of transport and communication was to find out about the
preferences of respondents in this regard in order to use them for exploring innovative
channels of publicising information.
Out of 75 respondents, 34 were females and 40 males and one person did not answer
the question. This indicates a good gender balance amongst respondents.
The table given below disaggregates respondents on the basis of their age. Out of 75
respondents; 42% per cent of the total sample, were between the age of 45-54 while
15 % were 35-44 years old. Another 11% were 65 or older and 4% were in the age
bracket of 25-34. Yet another 5% were 18 to 24 year old while only 5 % of the
respondents were less than 18.
Number of respondents Percentage
Under 18 4 5%
18-24 4 5%
25-34 3 4%
35-44 11 15%
45-54 31 42%
55-64 13 17%
65 and over 8 11%
No answer 1 1%
2.3-Length of stay in Britain
Table16 shows that the length of residence in Britain varies amongst respondents. A
large number, 41 to be precise, have been in Britain for l0 years or more. Another 13
which are 17 % of the sample are living here for more than 5 but less than 10 years.
Responses that were received in this category are presented below in table 12.
Number of respondents Percentage
Less than 12 months 0 0%
1 years but less than 3 9 12%
3 years but less than 5 11 15%
5 years but less then 10 years 13 17%
10 years or more 41 55%
No answer 1 1%
2. 4 - General Information on use of transport, phones and local services
These questions were included to find out where else IOM could advertise its
voluntary return programme in order to have an impact on Pakistanis.
Results in this category showed that people widely use public services. Citizen Advice
Bureaux, community centres, libraries, medical centres and museums are the more
widely used public services. Table 13 depicts the responses received in this category.
Loc a l se r v i c e s
Community Centr e
Libr ar ies
Medical Centr e
Leisur eCentr e
Community Centr e
Libr ar ies
Citizen AdviceBur eau
Medical Centr e
Leisur eCentr e
Means of Transport
Buses are the most widely used means of transport; underground and mainline train is
also used by a considerable number of people. Responses received in this category
have been compiled in the table below:
T ransp o rt
Bus Tube Mainlinetr ain Car Tr am Taxi Noanswer
Table 15 records the responses on people’s preferred way of calling back home. This
shows that people prefer to call from the landline with discounted international calling
card as this is the cheapest option.
9 7 7
Landline with card Mobile phone Mobile phone with
3 - CONSTRAINTS
Some of the constraints faced during the mapping process are recorded in this section.
Given the size of the Pakistani community, the initial target was set at the 100
questionnaires but that could not be achieved. Some of the factors which contributed
towards this are as follows:
I. Some of the people with whom contacts were made during the initial weeks
and who promised to facilitate the field work outside London went on the
Easter holiday in April. The work outside London suffered because of this fact
especially in Birmingham.
II. During the course of the mapping exercise IOM ordered pre-stamped and self-
addressed envelopes to facilitate and increase the number of returned
questionnaires which were delivered quite late and that had an impact of the
number of questionnaires received.
III. Since IOM advertisements appear in the largest Urdu language newspaper
published in the UK, The Daily Jang, many people were already aware of
IOM’s Voluntary Return Programme and they appeared reluctant to take part
in the mapping survey.
4 - CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The Pakistani community in the United Kingdom is characterised by diversity, strong
community involvement and bonding with its culture. Their diversity is obvious from
the fact that there is a sizable population of at least three major linguistic groups
. Any strategy aimed at interacting with this community and disseminating
information to them should keep these facts in mind. In the light of the above-
mentioned facts, the following recommendations have been prepared:
a. IOM should continue producing information in Urdu and Punjabi languages
because they appear to be the preferred languages of the Pakistani community
in the UK.
b. A sizable population communicates in Potohari as well, so its importance
should not be undermined. Like Punjabi, Potohari is also not an ‘erudite’
language. It is widely spoken but not written and read so widely.
c. IOM advertisements appear in The Daily Jang newspaper which is the largest
Urdu language newspaper in the UK. Survey results show that it is the most
widely read newspaper as well. IOM should continue advertising regularly in
d. IOM should also consider advertising in The Nation. Being a smaller
newspaper, the cost of advertising in it would be less and it would give more
value for money as it had a sizable readership.
e. The questionnaires results show that television is the most widely and
frequently-used media by the Pakistani community. IOM should do a cost
benefit analysis before choosing which TV channels it should advertise with.
f. IOM should advertise with D.M DIGITAL, the only Pakistani channel based in
the UK (Manchester). This is like a community channel available through
SKY Digital satellite.
g. IOM advertisements appear in the Sunrise radio channel. This channel is
listened by the Pakistani community across the UK therefore IOM should
continue advertising with them. However, the possibilities of advertising with
smaller radio channels that have regional coverage should also be explored.
Apni Awaz and Asian Sound Radio are two such channels.
h. Radio programmes on smaller channels should also be arranged. IOM already
has offers from such channels which can be an inexpensive way of reaching a
large audience as most of the smaller channels do need programmes especially
if they are broadcasting 24 hours a day.
Refer to Table 6 of this report
i. Since a large number of the community members do not know how to use the
internet, it does not appear to be an attractive option for disseminating
information at this stage.
j. As the Pakistani community is a close-knit community and has many active
community organisations, it is useful if IOM liaises with them and spreads
information about its programme through these organisations. IOM should
follow the recommendations included in the List of Contacts (Appendix A)
which constitutes a real action plan for outreach activities with the Pakistani
community in the UK.
k. IOM should also consider placing its information and publicity material in the
public libraries as a large number of respondents consider libraries a good
place for accessing information.
l. IOM should also consider displaying its information material in Pakistani
grocery stores and halal meat shops.
m. IOM should explore the possibility of advertising on phone cards
n. IOM should try to place its information material in community and medical
centres as a large number of people use these services.
o. IOM should place its information material in community centres being run by
the Pakistani organizations.
p. IOM should follow up with those organizations have shown interest in
facilitating IOM’s work.
q. Most of the networking and socializing takes place in religious venues and
around religious occasions: IOM should analyze the pros and cons of
networking with mosques.