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Ethnic Minorities in Media

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Ethnic Minorities in Media

  1. 1. Research Ethnic Minorities in Media Workplace
  2. 2. 1 Research Sources and Assumptions 1.1 Source The data used in this factsheet is from the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) student record database. The data covers the academic year of 2007 – 2008. Definitions of the various subject areas used in this factsheet can be found at: http://www.hesa.ac.uk/index.php/content/view/102/136/1/4 1.2 Assumptions The data used refers to UK domiciled students only; it does not include overseas students who are studying in the UK. Students falling under the ‘Unknown’ category have not been added to the White group or any of the ethnic minority groups. Instead, these have either been disregarded or represented as ‘Unknown’ in the analysis. Media related subjects include the following subjects: o Mass communications and documentation o Languages o Creative arts and design 1.3 Definitions The ethnic minority category groupings are based on Census 2001 categories. Please note in particular that: White includes: White Irish Traveller Mixed includes: Mixed – White and Black Caribbean Mixed – White and Black African Mixed – White and Asian Mixed – other Other includes: Other ethnic background Not Known includes: Not Known Information refused Ethnic Minorities in Media 02 I Race for Opportunity (RfO) | Ethnic Minorities in Media
  3. 3. 03 I Race for Opportunity (RfO) | Ethnic Minorities in Media 2 Ethnic Minorities in Media 2.1 Representation of Ethnic Minority Students in Media related subjects Our research shows that amongst the various ethnic minority groups studying media related subjects at UK universities during 2007–08, students of mixed ethnicity had by far the highest representation (3.0 percent), followed by Indian students (1.7 percent), Black African students (1.4 percent) and Black Caribbean students (1.3 percent). On the other hand, students from ‘Black Other’ backgrounds and students of Bangladeshi origins had the least representation among ethnic minority groups – (see figure 1). Figure 1: Representation of Ethnic Minority Students Studying Media Related Subjects (2007-08) Source: HESA Student Record (2007-08) The total ethnic minority representation of students studying media related subjects in 2007-08 was 11.0%compared to 84.7%of the White student population studying media related subjects during 2007-08. Ethnic Minorities in Media Black Caribbean Black African Black Other Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Chinese Other Asian Mixed Other 1.3% 0.3% 1.4% 1.7% 0.7% 0.4% 0.7% 0.7% 0.9% 3%
  4. 4. 04 I Race for Opportunity (RfO) | Ethnic Minorities in Media FAST FACTS Black and minority ethnic (BAME) workers are under-represented in London’s audio visual (AV) industries. Ten per cent of the AV workforce in London is from a black or minority ethnic group, even though a quarter of London’s workforce is made up of BAME workers. The figures are even lower in some parts of the industry e.g. in film production, the black and minority ethnic figure is only six per cent. Source: Working Lives Research Institute, London Metropolitan University ‘Institutional barriers to recruitment and employment in the audio visuals industries’ January 2007 Ethnic Minorities in Media We found that all ethnic minority groups, except the mixed ethnicity group, had a lower representation among students studying media related subjects, than among students studying all subjects. Figure 2: Representation of Ethnic Minority Groups among Students Studying Media Related subjects vis-à-vis All subjects (2007-08) Source: HESA Student Record (2007-08) Ethnic Minorities in Media Other Mixed Ethnicity Other Asian Background Chinese Asian or Asian British - Bangladeshi Asian or Asian British - Pakistani Asian or Asian British - Indian Other Black Background Black or Black British - African Black or Black British - Caribbean Media All Subjects 1.3% 1.4% 1.4% 3.2% 0.3% 0.3% 1.7% 3.3% 0.7% 1.9% 0.4% 0.6% 0.7% 0.9% 0.7% 1.2% 3.0% 2.1% 0.9% 0.9% 68.6% 79.0% 27.4% 16.0% Other Mixed Ethnicity Other Asian Background Chinese Asian or Asian British - Bangladeshi Asian or Asian British - Pakistani Asian or Asian British - Indian Other Black Background Black or Black British - African Black or Black British - Caribbean Media All Subjects 1.3% 1.4% 1.4% 3.2% 0.3% 0.3% 1.7% 3.3% 0.7% 1.9% 0.4% 0.6% 0.7% 0.9% 0.7% 1.2% 3.0% 2.1% 0.9% 0.9% 68.6% 79.0% 27.4% 16.0% White Representation: Media – 84.7% All Subjects – 79.0% Total Ethnic Minority Representation: Media – 11.0% All Subjects – 16.0%
  5. 5. Source:HESAStudentRecord 1 Themostpopularareasofstudyforthiscohortwere‘subjectsalliedtomedicine’(14%)followedbyBusiness&AdministrativeStudies(11%)andEducation(10%).TheleastpopularsubjectwasVeterinaryScience(0.2%). EthnicMinoritiesinMedia 2.2UKUniversitieswiththeHighestProportionofEthnicMinorityStudentsstudyingMediarelatedsubjects In2007/2008therewere1.9millionUKdomiciledstudentsatUKuniversitiesofwhich15percent(290,912.30)werestudyingmediarelatedsubjects1 . Table1showsthetop25universitiesrankedbytheproportionofstudentsfromethnicminoritygroupsstudyingmediarelatedsubjects(2007-08).University CollegeBirminghamhadthehighestproportion(50.9percent)ofethnicminoritystudentsamongstudentsstudyingmediarelatedsubjects,followed byUniversityofEastLondon(45.8percent)andBrunelUniversity(44.3percent).These25universitiesconstituted43.3percentofthetotalpopulation ofethnicminoritystudentsstudyingmediarelatedsubjectsatUKuniversities. Table1:UniversitiesRankedbyProportionofEthnicMinorityStudentsstudyingMediarelatedsubjects(2007–08) All Ethnic Minorities Black Caribbean Black African Black Other Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Chinese Asian Other Mixed Other % of total BAME Media Students Whites Top25Universities
  6. 6. Source:HESAStudentRecord 2.3RussellGroupUniversitieswiththeHighestProportionofEthnicMinorityStudentsstudyingMedia Table2showsthepercentageofstudentsstudyingmediarelatedsubjectsfromeachethnicminoritygroupatRussellGroupuniversities.LondonSchoolof EconomicsandPoliticalScience(LSE)hadthehighestproportion(26.9percent)ofethnicminoritystudents,followedbyKing’sCollegeLondon(19.8percent) andUniversityCollegeLondon(15.6percent).RussellGroupuniversitiesconstitute11.9percentofthetotalethnicminoritystudentsstudyingmediarelated subjectsatUKuniversities. Table2:RussellGroupUniversitiesRankedbyProportionofStudentsfromEthnicMinoritiesstudyingMediaRelatedSubjects(2007–08) All Ethnic Minorities Black Caribbean Black African Black Other Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Chinese Asian Other Mixed Other % of total BAME Media Students Whites RussellUniversities EthnicMinoritiesinMedia
  7. 7. 07 I Race for Opportunity (RfO) | Ethnic Minorities in Media What’s class got to do with it? Ethnic Minorities in Media Of the top 100 journalists in 2006, 54% were independently educated an increase from 49% in 1986. Source: The Sutton Trust -The Educational Backgrounds of Leading Journalists, June 2006 A separate survey of leading journalists and editors suggests that the latest new recruits to the national news media are even more likely to come from privileged backgrounds than those from previous generations. Reasons for this range from: low pay and insecurity at junior levels; the high costs of living in London; the increasing costs of postgraduate courses; a bias towards those with family or personal connections within the industry amid a largely informal but highly competitive recruitment process; and finally, the stronger skills and attributes exhibited at an earlier age by those from private schools. Source: The Sutton Trust -The Educational Backgrounds of Leading Journalists, June 2006 Some Household Names and their Educational Background News Presenters/Correspondents: Name Organisation School School Type University Jeremy Paxman BBC Newsnight Malvern College IND Cambridge John Simpson BBC St. Pauls IND Cambridge Jon Snow Channel 4 News St Edwards Chichester High for Boys IND Liverpool David Dimbleby BBC Question Time Glengorse, Battle; Charterhouse IND Oxford Fiona Bruce BBC Hatcham Girls, New Cross SEL Oxford Newspaper Editors: Ian Hislop Private Eye Ardingly College IND Oxford Matthew d’Ancona Spectator St. Dunstan’s College IND Oxford Lionel Barber Financial Times Dulwich College IND Oxford Roger Alton Observer Clifton College IND Oxford Alan Rusbridger Guardian Cranleigh IND Cambridge Source: The Sutton Trust -The Educational Backgrounds of Leading Journalists, June 2006 Private schools make up only 7 per cent of the country’s secondary school population. Yet they produce well over half of the country’s top news journalists. Source: The SuttonTrust -The Educational Backgrounds of Leading Journalists, June 2006
  8. 8. 08 I Race for Opportunity (RfO) | Ethnic Minorities in Media Key Media Facts Ethnic Minorities in Media Ethnic minority participation How good are the TV companies at Diversity? A survey2 carried out in 2004 found that: ITV 7% across ITV as a whole and 14% of staff in London were from ethnic minority groups. Channel 4 11.4% of all staff and 6% of senior staff were from ethnic minority backgrounds. Five News 10% of staff on Five News were from ethnic minority backgrounds. Sky 8.2% of Sky’s workforce was from an ethnic minority background and 9% of Sky’s management team were from ethnic minority backgrounds. In addition, 13% of Sky’s programming team were from an ethnic minority background. ITN Two members of the senior management team were from an ethnic minority background. BBC 13% of new recruits were from an ethnic minority background. Source: http://www.asiansinmedia.org/news/article.php/television/740 TV Milestones 1975, Empire Road became the first black soap programme 1978, LWT set up the London Minorities Unit 1982, Channel 4 launched with minority brief Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/uk/2002/race/how_entertainment_changed.stm According to a Weber Shandwick study, 77% of Asians, 78% of black people and 51% of Chinese people in the UK say marketing by mainstream brands has little or no relevance to them. 2 The figures and information below were provided by the broadcasters themselves.
  9. 9. 09 I Race for Opportunity (RfO) | Ethnic Minorities in Media FAST FACTS Representation also varies between occupational groups. Processing laboratory staff have the highest representation of ethnic minorities (19.0%), with cinema cleaners (17.4%) and other roles within cinema exhibition also high. Studio operations (16.4%) and transmission (12.5%) have also both seen a positive increase since 2004. Source: Skillset - The Sector Skills Council for the Audio Visual Industries – Employment Census 2006 Ethnic Minorities in Media Figure 3: Representation of Ethnic Minorities in the Industry in each occupational group Source: Skillset - The Sector Skills Council for the Audio Visual Industries – Employment Census 2006 Ethnic Minorities in Media Producing Production Journalism & Sport Radio Broadcasting Television Broadcasting Programme Distribution Transmission Broadcast Engineering Studio Operations Interactive or Games Production Interactive or Games Operations Interactive or Games Business Draw/Stop Frame Animation 2D/3D Computer Generated Animation Art & Design Camera Costume/Wardrobe Library/Archives Lighting Make Up& Hairdressing Post Production Sound Special Physical Effects Runner Cinema Projectionists Cinema Box Office/Kiosk/Attendants Cinema Cleaners Cinema Management/Head Office/Team Leaders Film Distribution Procesing Laboratories All Other Occupational Groups TOTAL Media All Subjects 4.9% 3.0% 3.7% 2.3% 9.0% 3.9% 4.1% 12.3% 0.0% 7.0% 3.1% 10.0% 19.0% 7.4% 17.4% 11.6% 4.7% 8.2% 0.3% 5.3% 8.9% 5.1% 16.4% 6.0% 12.5% 3.2% 9.5% 9.2% 11.1% 2.2% 6.4% 5.4% 68.6% 79.0% 27.4% 16.0%
  10. 10. 10 I Race for Opportunity (RfO) | Ethnic Minorities in Media FAST FACTS On the positive side, levels of employment of ethnic minorities are above average in cable & satellite, processing laboratories and cinema exhibition. However, at the other end of the scale, ethnic minorities make up 5% or less of the workforce in animation, computer games, offline multimedia, studio & equipment hire special physical effects and film distribution. Source: Skillset - The Sector Skills Council for the Audio Visual Industries – Employment Census 2006 Ethnic Minorities in Media Figure 4: Representation of Ethnic Minorities in the Industry in each sector Source: Skillset - The Sector Skills Council for the Audio Visual Industries – Employment Census 2006 Ethnic Minorities in Media Terrestrial TV Cable & Satellite Television Independent Production (Television) Broadcast Radio Animation Post Production Special Physical Effects Studio & Equipment Hire Other Services for Film & TV Web & Internet Computer Games Offline Multimedia Commercials Production Corporate Production Cinema Exhibition Film Distribution Processing Laboratories TOTAL Employees Freelancers All 7.4% 7.3% 7.4% 18.7% 33.4% 20.4% 5.1% 6.4% 5.8% 7.3% 5.6% 6.9% 2.1% 3.4% 2.6% 7.6% 6.8% 7.3% 0.7% 2.9% 1.6% 0.8% 4.2% 1.8% 5.1% 6.5% 5.6% 6.7% 7.1% 6.8% 4.3% 0.0% 3.9% 5.5% 2.7% 4.9% 9.7% 6.0% 7.2% 3.4% 9.0% 5.9% 11.6% 0.0% 11.6% 2.9% 9.3% 3.8% 19.0% 0.0% 19.0% 7.6% 7.0% 7.4%
  11. 11. Focus on Creative and Cultural Skills 11 I Race for Opportunity (RfO) | Ethnic Minorities in Media Ethnic Minorities in Media In the UK advertising employs around 26,500 people and contributes £1.4 billion to the UK economy each year. About 70% of the industry’s workforce are based in London 94% of the advertising workforce is white Design contributes £6.3 billion to the UK economy and 180,000 people currently work in the design industry. 33% are self employed and 20% are freelancers 95% of the design workforce is white Music contributes £6 billion of GVA to the UK economy and UK artists account for more than half of all albums sold in the UK, and one in 12 albums sold in the US. 96% of the music workforce is white Literature contributes £2.3 billion to the UK economy and 68,900 people currently work in the literature industry. 32% of the workforce is freelance, and 62% self-employed 94% of the workforce is white Source: Creative & Cultural Skills www..ccskills.org.uk
  12. 12. 00 I Race for Opportunity (RfO) | Race to the top For further information on the Race for Opportunity campaign. Please visit www.raceforopportunity.org.uk or telephone 020 7566 8661 designed and produced by scs marketing ltd | t: 01323 471050 Product code: 01OPP000435 www.bitc.org.uk information@bitc.org.uk © Race for Opportunity February 2010 | design and print OSCCreative Product code: 01RFO000436 Race for Opportunity is part of Business in the Community Registered Details 137 Shepherdess Walk, London N1 7RQ. Telephone: 020 7566 8650 Registered Charity No: 297716. Company Limited by Guarantee No: 1619253 designed and produced by scs marketing ltd | t: 01323 471050 Product code: 01OPP000435

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