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Construction process


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Construction process

  1. 1. Chapter 5: Construction Process by Syed Burhanuddin Hilmi Syed Mohamad
  2. 2. Project Format <ul><li>The construction industry is generally focused on the production of a single and unique end product. </li></ul><ul><li>The product of construction industry is a facility that is usually unique in design and method of fabrication. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a single ‘one-off’ item that is stylized in terms of its function, appearance and location. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Project Development <ul><li>Construction projects develop in a clearly sequential or linear fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>The general steps involved are as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A need for a facility is identified by the owner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial feasibility and cost projections are developed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The decision to proceed with conceptual design is made, and a design professional is retained. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Project Development <ul><ul><li>The conceptual design and scope of work are developed to include an approximate estimate of cost. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The decision is made to proceed with the development of final design documents, which fully define the project for purposes of construction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the final design documents, the project is advertised and proposals to include quotations for construction of the work are solicited. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Project Development <ul><ul><li>Based on proposals received, a constructor is selected and a notice to the constructor to proceed with the work is given. The proposal and the acceptance of the proposal on the part of the owner constitute the formation of a contract for the work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of constructing the facility is initiated. Work is complete and the facility is available for acceptance and occupancy. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Project Development <ul><ul><li>In complex projects, a period of testing decides if the facility operates as designed and planned. This period is typical of industrial projects and is referred to as project start-up. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The facility operates and is maintained during a specified service life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The facility is disposed of if appropriate or maintained in perpetuity. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Process <ul><li>A process is defined as a system of operations in the design, development, and production of something, such as a project. </li></ul><ul><li>A process is a series of actions, changes, or operations that bring about an end result – cost, schedule, technical performance objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>A process is that it is a course or passage of time in which something is created – an ongoing movement or progression. </li></ul><ul><li>(Ireland & Iceland, 2002) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Construction Processes <ul><li>The process of purchase begins with a client who has need for a facility. </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of risk is influenced by this process of purchasing construction. </li></ul><ul><li>In construction, since the item purchased is to be produced, there are many complex issues which can lead to failure to complete the project in a functional and/or timely manner. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Managing the Project Life Cycle Cleland & King, 1983 <ul><li>Assist in transfer of project product. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer human and nonhuman resources to other organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer or complete commitments. </li></ul><ul><li>Terminate project. </li></ul><ul><li>Reward personnel. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform the work of the project (i.e. design, construction, production, site activation, testing, delivery, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>Define the project organization approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Define projects target. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the schedule for execution phase. </li></ul><ul><li>Define and allocate tasks and resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Build the project team. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine that a project is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate the resources that the organization is willing to commit. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sell” the organization on the need for a project approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Make key personnel appointment. </li></ul>Phase 4 Termination Phase 3 Execution phase Phase 2 Planning phase Phase 1 Conceptual Phase
  10. 10. Construction Process <ul><li>The construction process may be subdivided into the stages considered below: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptual stage: the client identifies the need for the item of construction and appoints and briefs consultants who study the client’s requirement, propose an outline of the design and assess the feasibility of the project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design stage: the concept of the project is further developed and production information and contract documentation prepared. Tenders are called. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Construction Process <ul><ul><li>Construction stage: production programmes are prepared and construction carried out on site. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation and maintenance stage: the completed building or works is maintained, repaired or altered as required over the course of its life. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Activities at Various Stages of a construction project Members of the design team develop brief, consider the technical and functional feasibility of the client’s intentions, make general proposals for the project including form, layout, height and floor area, Architect applies for outline planning approval. Outline proposals Client considers project requirements, acquires land, sets up project team, appoints and briefs architect/engineer. Inception Activities Substage
  13. 13. Activities at Various Stages of a construction project Design team prepares the full design of the project and all relevant production information and contract documentation. Architect applies for building plan approval. Detailed design Architect/Engineer finalises brief, and with other consultants, prepares sketch designs which are submitted to the client for approval. Scheme Design Activities Substage
  14. 14. Activities at Various Stages of a construction project Prepares a programme for the project and mobilises resources for construction on sie. Project planning Invites tenders. Quantity Surveyor evaluates the tenders and report to client. Recommends to Client. Client signs a contract with the successful bidder. Tender Activities Substage
  15. 15. Activities at Various Stages of a construction project Main Contractor and subcontractors transform the production information into a physical facility. Members of the design team supervise construction. Architect/engineer issues payment certificates periodically on the recommendation of the Quantity Surveyor. Site Meeting. On completion, Architect, applies for a temporary occupation license. Application for a final certificate. Site Operation Activities Substage
  16. 16. Activities at Various Stages of a construction project George Ofori, 1990 All faults becoming evident during the defects liability period are made good by the contractor. Quantity surveyor prepares the final account for the project. Clients arranges for the management and maintenance of the facility. Operation Activities Substage
  17. 17. On time and within budget <ul><li>A quality facility on time and within budget </li></ul>
  18. 18. Construction Process <ul><li>The construction process involves the translation of a client’s needs and intentions. </li></ul><ul><li>Then prepare documentations; cost plan, BQ, Specifications, Drawings. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, the construction phase. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Construction Process <ul><li>Pre-Construction Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feasibility study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline Conceptual Design Stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary Design Stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design Development Stage (Working Drawing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completion of Working Drawings </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Activities During Construction <ul><li>Construction Supervision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demolition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excavation and foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete and brickwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finishes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M&E works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External works </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Activities During Construction <ul><li>Construction Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Variation Order </li></ul><ul><li>Progress Payment </li></ul><ul><li>Certificate of Practical Completion (CPC) </li></ul><ul><li>Certificate of Fitness (CF) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Site Preparation <ul><li>Site clearing </li></ul><ul><li>Earthwork </li></ul><ul><li>Setting Out & Levelling </li></ul><ul><li>Hoarding </li></ul><ul><li>Dewatering systems </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul>
  23. 23. Detail Process <ul><li>Decision of a client in order to invest or not. </li></ul><ul><li>The client acquires a piece of land for project development. </li></ul><ul><li>The client will engage professionals to prepare documentation including drawings, specifications, a form of contract, BQ. All about consultancy works. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Key Players <ul><li>The owner/Employer </li></ul><ul><li>The designer/Estimator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Architect/Planner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C&S Engineers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M&E Engineers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The constructor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcont. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Clients <ul><li>Initiator of the construction process. </li></ul><ul><li>Will be financing the project. </li></ul><ul><li>An employer </li></ul><ul><li>May be the public and private sectors. </li></ul>
  26. 26. SUPPLIER CONTRACTOR MANPOWER AUTHORITIES FINANCIER CONSULTANTS CLIENT Project Management Consultant Planner Architect Engineers; C&S, M, E Quantity Surveyor Land Surveyor Interior Designer Landscape Architect Administration Site Management Site Worker Domestic Sub Contractor Nominated Sub Contractor Main Contractor Nominated Supplier Manufacturer Vendor Distributor Bank Finance Company Credit Corporation Leasing Company Federal State Local Private Sector Public Sector Parties Involved in the Construction Industry
  27. 27. <ul><li>The process will be organised into the sequence of activities/works differ from one project to another. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Construction Site Management <ul><li>Work Programme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first stage, which is best commenced by referring to the initial draft programme submitted at tender stage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes time schedule for all major activities in the contract. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critical activities, early start time, early completion time, milestones. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence of works. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Project Planning and Control <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>To arrange the activities appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>To make a realistic time scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>To make a resources estimation and planning </li></ul><ul><li>To implement time and cost controlling </li></ul><ul><li>To ease the contract administration </li></ul>
  30. 30. Planning <ul><li>What are we aiming for and why? </li></ul><ul><li>In the execution of this function, the organization’s mission, objectives, goals, and strategies are determined. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Control <ul><li>Construction – monitored by Project Manager. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on work programme – as planned vs. actual progress. </li></ul><ul><li>IT - Microsoft project & Primavera (sometime Excel). </li></ul><ul><li>Cash Flow (Financial Progress) </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection & Observation (Physical Progress). </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>WHY THERE HAS TO BE A PLAN? </li></ul><ul><li>INTERNAL (STRATEGIC) OR EXTERNAL (CLIENT’S REQUEST) </li></ul><ul><li>TO AVOID RISK </li></ul><ul><li>TO TRACK PROGRESS </li></ul><ul><li>TO MAKE CORRECTION </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>WHY SCHEDULE? </li></ul><ul><li>To communicate the construction plan </li></ul><ul><li>To establish production goal </li></ul><ul><li>To monitor and measure progress </li></ul><ul><li>To manage change </li></ul>
  34. 34. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>The task of monitoring and controlling help to determine the objectives are within reach </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and control has to start at early stage of the project development since it has more impact on cost </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on monitoring and control at the construction stage since many acknowledge of its difficulty </li></ul>
  35. 35. MONITORING and CONTROL <ul><li>Monitoring is comparing the planned against actual </li></ul><ul><li>Using software can easily be updated and preparation of reports are standardised </li></ul><ul><li>Several methods used to monitor the work progress these include time weightage, cost weightage, man-days and quality </li></ul><ul><li>Most common is using cost weightage </li></ul>
  36. 36. Progress Curves Table 3.4 Combination between S-Curves and Bar Charts Original Schedule Actual progress Cumulative progress (%) 100 0                     Dismantle Plant, Clean Up 12                     Curtain Grout 11                     Spillway Bridge 10                     Radial Gates 9                     Prestress 8                     Install Trash Racks 7                     Install Outlet Gates 6                     Dam Concrete 5                     Foundation Grouting 4                     Diversion Stage 3                     Foundation Excavation 2                     Mobilization 1 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1     Month Description No.
  37. 37. Project Controlling Procedure <ul><li>- What performance measures should be selected? </li></ul><ul><li>What data should be used to estimate the current value of each performance measure? </li></ul><ul><li>How should raw data be collected, from which sources, and in what frequency? </li></ul><ul><li>How should the data be analyzed to detect current and future deviations? </li></ul><ul><li>How should the results of the analysis be reported, in what format, to whom, and how often? </li></ul>Figure 3.12 Project Controlling Procedure Project plan Project implementation Project control Project updating Measurement Of work performance
  38. 38. Project Controlling Figure 3.13 Implementation of Project Controlling in Construction Project Implementation of Project Controlling Construction Design Subcontract Procurement Project Site Main office
  39. 39. Elements of Project Controlling Figure 3.14 Elements of Project Controlling Action Plan Budget Elements of Project Controlling Tools Milestone Forecasting
  40. 40. Figure below presents a Gantt Chart generated by Microsoft Project. Gantt Chart: The Gantt chart (invented by Henry L. Gantt in 1900's) is a bar chart presentation showing a horizontal bar for each task, the length of the bar representing the duration of the task.
  41. 41. Construct Bar Chart <ul><li>Layout? </li></ul><ul><li>Time unit? </li></ul><ul><li>Workdays or calendar days? </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous or non-continuous… </li></ul>
  42. 42. Bar Charts Limitations <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to prepare </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to understand </li></ul><ul><li>Good communication tool </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Do not show inter-relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to documentation and manage project </li></ul>
  43. 43. Time Controlling <ul><li>Factors causing delay in construction project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procurement of resources which is not on schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate work capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ineffective project management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are some redesign and extra work to the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad communication among parties involved in project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inefficient decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Force majeur, etc. </li></ul></ul>Need an effective supervision
  44. 44. Suggestion of Practices <ul><li>Some of the practices can be incorporated in the monitoring and control process system these include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morning discussion with the foreman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Afternoon discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion the resources requirement every forth nightly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using bonus system to improve productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using damages clause to control supplier and sub-contractor </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Historical Background <ul><li>During world war 1, Henry L.Gantt develop a graphical technique of displaying bar type line upon specific time. </li></ul><ul><li>The technique was known as Bar Chart. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1956 E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company developed network concept known as Critical Path Method </li></ul><ul><li>Booz Allen & Hamilton develop Project Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling software application are Primavera, Microsoft Project, Artemis, Timeline etc </li></ul>
  47. 47. Choice of Scheduling Method <ul><li>Factors that governed the choice of the </li></ul><ul><li>technique are: </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity on the technique to be used </li></ul><ul><li>Type and size of project </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of scheduling </li></ul>
  48. 48. Familiarity on the technique to be used <ul><li>A planner should not engaged any technique which he has a limited knowledge on it’s application </li></ul><ul><li>Main objective of the schedule as a communication tool </li></ul><ul><li>Important to have a schedule technique which is acceptable by all parties. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Type and Size of the Project <ul><li>Project with few but repetitive tasks – Line of Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Medium to Large Project – (Critical Path Method) like Precedence Method or Arrow Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Small Project – Gantt Chart or Bar Chart </li></ul>
  50. 50. Purpose & Important of Schedule <ul><li>Claim </li></ul><ul><li>Project time and cost control </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate project resources more efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>As a monitoring tool </li></ul><ul><li>Material delivery at site </li></ul><ul><li>Storage – all material cannot put in the site (confined space) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid delay of the work and activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize the cash flow – as min as possible such as order material stage by stage depend on the work needed. </li></ul><ul><li>To guide fabricate (roofing, steel etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Control human resources and machinery </li></ul><ul><li>To give confidence to the client especially when bidding process. </li></ul><ul><li>To improve the efficiency of the operation through the efficient use of resources and cost control. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic schedule for endorsement . </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>ACTIVITY DEFINED </li></ul><ul><li>FIVE CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul><ul><li>Must consume time </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly consume resourse </li></ul><ul><li>Have a defineable start and finish </li></ul><ul><li>Measurable </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>ACTIVITY IDENTIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>THINGS TO BE REVIEWED </li></ul><ul><li>Plans and specification </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Contract conditions </li></ul><ul><li>BQ </li></ul><ul><li>Other information </li></ul>
  54. 54. ACTIVITY DETAIL DEPENDS ON THE FOLLOWING: >Purpose Complexity >Philosophy >Information >Responsibility >Effect of detail
  55. 55. <ul><li>ACTIVITY DESCRIPTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>CONCISE AND CLEAR </li></ul><ul><li>MAY USE SCOPE AND LOCATION </li></ul><ul><li>ALWAYS HAVE THE SAME MEANING </li></ul><ul><li>LEGIBLE AND UNDERSTANDABLE </li></ul><ul><li>CONSISTENT </li></ul><ul><li>USE STANDARD ABBREVIATION </li></ul>
  57. 57. Work Sequence <ul><li>Stages of construction activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Normally from site clearing until project handover. </li></ul><ul><li>Logical sequence of activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Needs an experience and knowledge during planning and scheduling process. </li></ul>
  58. 58.                         Jumlah Terkumpul (Dilaksana) 36 35 34 31 27 22 17 13 9 6 3 1 Jumlah Terkumpul (Dirancang) 1 1 3 4 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 Jumlah Mingguan                         36 Jumlah                                                 4 Kerja Bata                                                 4 Tuang Konkrit Tiang                                                 4 Pasang Tetulang Tiang                                                 4 Pasang Acuan Tiang                                                 4 Penambakan                                                 4 Tuang Konkrit Asas                                                 4 Pasang Tetulang Asas                                                 4 Korek Asas                                                 4 Bersih Tapak 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 MINGGU MASA AKTIVITI
  59. 59. 2200 3 Finish HVAC 2400 2200 2 Finish plumbing 2300 2600 3 Internal paint 2200 2200 4 Internal finish carpentry 2100 2200 3 Ext paint 2000 2100, 2300 2 Cabinets 1900 1900, 2400, 2500 4 Finish drywall 1800 1800 4 Hang drywall 1700 1500 2 Ext finish carpentry 1600 20000 3 Ext siding 1500 1000, 1600, 2700 3 Shingles 1400 1000 3 Rough Electrical 1300 1300 3 Rough HVAC 1200 Successors Duration (days) Description Act. ID 2 Punch list 2800 2800 4 Grading and landscaping 2700 2800 3 Flooring 2600 2200 2 Finish electrical 2500
  60. 60. <ul><li>A SUCCESSFUL CONSTRUCTION: </li></ul><ul><li>WITHIN BUDGET </li></ul><ul><li>ON TIME </li></ul><ul><li>MEETS OWNWER SPECIFIED NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>WORK WITH FLEXIBILITY </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>Daniel W.Halpin (2006); Construction Management; Third Edition; John Wiley & Sons; USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew A. L. Tan (2004); Why Projects Fail? 1001 reasons; Venton Publishing (M) Sdn. Bhd.; Selangor, Malaysia. </li></ul>