Hybrid Organizations


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Hybrid Organizations

  1. 1. In today's world, there is great competition in nealry all sectors. One of the basic tools to be effective and competitive organization is to be a hybrid organization. Information in the era of knowledge explosion can be considered as the dense production, production of information very quickly to the application for the introduction of information technology in the rapid development and globalization, as changes in organizational structures and processes to review are forcing the information in the age of organizations, technology use level at which they will get advanced information and communication technologies radical effects against and therefore stay with current information and communication technologies can lead a very dynamic growth experienced in the transformation of the structure of organizations . Accordingly organizations, temporary employment, hybrid-hybrid (Hybrid organization) organizational structures, with joint ventures (joint ventures), network organizations (networking organization), shrinking (downsizing), lean organizations (lean organization), cluster organizations (cluster organization) self-managed work groups (self-managed working groups), virtual organizations (virtual organization), learning organizations, making use of external resources (outsourcing), basic skills approach (core competence) and total quality management toward change are taking place. These changes occurred in organizations, organizations related to the functioning of the changing nature of the process and therefore organizations are emerging new forms of structuring (KOÇEL, 2001:318). Organizations, along with globalization in the market dominance to ensure organizational effectiveness and service quality to achieve their goals, such as structures are redesigned. Hybrid (Hybrid) organization concept is an important concept in terms of multi-national enterprises. This study will first talk about the concept of organization, and the need for modern organizational structures will be explained. Then, hybrid organizations with examples in detail will be covered. In conclusion, modern organizational structures, and differences will be noted that hybrid organizations bring. 2.MODERN ORGANIZATIONS Globalization is effective in all areas of life and globalization in recent years with the rapid changes which significantly affects organizational structure. Not remain indifferent to these rapid changes in organizations. In this study, in the process of globalization in the international platform hybrid (hybrid) organization structure will be examined. 2.1. Introduction Biological and physiological needs of people and aim to meet together with others to reach the laws have to. At this point stands out against our organizations. Organizations to accomplish specific goals that are created as groups of individuals can not do a single push is done to provide. Concept of organization, and consists of a large number of members within a social system- oriented objectives of management activities (functional organization concept), as well as social institutions that perform activities itself (the concept of corporate organization) refers. Organization, "which are necessary for the production of tangible and intangible tools, bringing together activities in a specific order as a result of the emerging structure" tab can be defined as (Asunakutlu & Coşkun, 2000:21). Important work in the field of management science with Luther Gulick according to the business section to reach a specific goal- organizing, formal authority was established in units of the mechanism of "organization" is called. (Arslan, 2004:205).
  2. 2. Organization is the organization's plan for the implementation of the regulation of resource activities, including all of the creation of an organizational structure process. Organization structure, organization of the work was divided, the group and coordinate the can be considered as a formal framework (Akmut, Aktas and others, 2003:69). Organizations, specific objectives to accomplish more than one person co-ordinated way they work in a building, organizing the activities of organizations to ensure that human resources, financial elements and functions in coordination to bring together the process of being identifiable. (EFIL, 2004:160). Until the 1980s, mass production and efficiency based on a hierarchical or bureaucratic organizational structures accordingly intense international competition under the influence of globalization and rapid change remains insufficient to meet the needs of the process. Mass production, by the least developed countries and the traditional understanding of organization is preferred by fans, contemporary or modern organizations, flexible manufacturing and new structures that give priority to become specialists have begun to search. This is the ideal structure of mass production, the bureaucratic (hierarchical) structure separated from the one hand, some features of bureaucratic structures that benefit from the other side of the matrix structure of expertise, flexibility and independence to carry on such advantages of the new organizational structure to the emergence has caused. Emerged in the process of globalization, this new organization structures "modern buildings" are expressed as (Star, 2006:13). 2.2. Modern management theories Other systems over time (just built in 1960 as a systems approach is applied to the location in the 1970s as a situational approach) reduced the effect of management and organization, and even live within the community to respond to the needs of persons unable to come is inevitable. Indeed, this case came to the most important and leading cause, we are experiencing the information age and technology development and the rapid change is the result. With the help of a growing impetus of change in technology is to progress. Theorists of the 1980s created by Durumsallık approach be used in the basic approach to management would have suggested. But a growing impetus for change as technology advances with the location of durumsallık approach to the techniques of modern management approach was replaced. (Melon, T, 2009:1) Organizations, on the basis of production required to reach consumers, as well as organizational management in terms of changing world conditions (globalization, consumer awareness and product a decisive role in human rights, the environment to create awareness, information, knowledge gained importance and frequent use, advanced technology and information systems, etc.) effect can not respond to the needs and reconstruction situations have come to terms with the changing requirement of compliance with the severely felt. (Melon, T, 2009:1) Organizational structure of an organization of various elements of the external environment (customers, government intervention, competition, market conditions, etc..) Will be affected by such external factors. On the other hand, in particular, dissolution of the Soviet Blok'undaki, human rights, democratization, globalization, strengthening of the current, for reasons such as increasing competition from international organizations made various innovations have emerged.
  3. 3. Planning is important with a function such as learning and problem against the collective need to find joint solutions with the organization / environment / community partnerships with other intractable systems shall be developed. And organizations so that the ecological demands of this increased demand to cope with the need to learn new models and examples, the environment development of the relations between the joint creation of facilities chose a path, and thus are able to fulfill the following (Melon, T, 2009:1): A learning function should be permanenet on: 1.Others, such as job design, work experience, which likely applies to the possible transfer of technologies to develop with the function of interest throughout is laid out 2.Rational models or paradigms, and opportunities to become aware of the difficult situation with the full scope of consciousness to develop more powerful to be there of the learning process a 3.Ecological systems theory of the learning process, partnership / co-development and creative thinking as the theory of systems analysis functions, some of the execution to a systemic approach to access 4.Organization with this justification on the basis of a whole organization to the financial and structural basis to better realize all of the above-mentioned functions, the active participation of top management staff, provide essential support functions to be displayed in the form is extremely important. Globalization, Management Excellence (Excellence in Management), Human Rights, Information Age, Knowledge-Based Organization, the International Competition, Systems Approach between the Information Society (Knowledge Society), Telecommunications, Total Quality, Rapid technological changes, similar concepts and developments of the organizations and on the functioning bring radical changes have to be considered. The development of communication and information technology businesses have eliminated the concept of distance, ensuring that everyone has access to information will become. Hierarchical differences in this case first and foremost organization, management area, career planning, use of concepts like authority influenced. The most important result of these developments "continuous change" has become. For this reason, people have to constantly renew themselves remain. Profound effect on organizational structure that developments such as globalization, businesses in raw material supply, marketing, finance and personnel requirements in terms of thinking outside the country has forced. This on the one hand in the activities of businesses to revise their criteria for effectiveness, the other hand, can respond instantly change creating flexible organizational structure has forced. All these developments are made, human rights, humanitarian values, the concept of personality and creativity of people to benefit from the views and approaches regarding the organization and functioning of the processes have been effective. (Melon, T, 2009:1): 2.3. Provide Exchange Factors 2.3.1.Communication and Technology: Businesses with new communication methods to overcome national borders and can operate in a wider area. Countries all over the world with widespread use of communication for organizations has become a potential market, a national of the buildings were converted into international structures. Thus, the above mentioned changes observed in enterprises and new business-type concepts have emerged. - Large centers small factories - Vertical integration to work with subcontractors
  4. 4. - Size of the economy flexible small structures - Sharp and lean organization hierarchy from the flattened - Bureaucratic personality entrepreneurship - Market share increased to create new market - Mass marketing niche marketing - Quantitive quality Robock and Simmonds (1989), of being multi-national companies doing business in the country and the number of owners or top managers, such as nationality structural factors, foreign countries, obtained from or transferred to foreign countries, the earnings, sales, or for employees such as performance criteria, managerial behavior, according to the application determined the causes of conflict in the literature had revealed that such businesses were identified as the different structures of the supply. "International", "transnational" and "multinational enterprises" concept, a central office controlled by the applications many countries spread across the private, public or mixed enterprises as a collection of a single defined as the combined Change City (Robock and Simmonds, 1989 : 6), there are also different definitions of these concepts: International Business: own country, except in one or more businesses operating in the country, Multinational Enterprises: At least two country ownership of part or all of its own production and marketing activities as contained in its own business strategy and this strategy with all its affiliates or subsidiary businesses in the application, Transnational business: operating in the political and economic borders, management and ownership structure because a single national identity does not have a business, Supranational Business: established through international agreements, international registration and controlled by an organ, not the nationality as a legal business, Global Business: All functional areas including, business applications makes it is common in the age of the world (Ball and McCulloch, 1990: 19) 2.3.2.Globalizasyon: Business has been moving beyond national borders. Closed organization (system) alternative left. Flexible organization has come into question. Network organization, hybrid organizations, joint-venture and strategic alliances is a result of these developments. 2.3.3.Creativity human worth making: Team organization, authorization and approaches zero, the hierarchy is the result of these developments. 2.4. New Developments in Management Organization Theory: Since the mid-1970s, management and organization of ideas and applications in many new and different views have emerged. As of 1998 the management and organization literature, and emerging applications of the major concepts and techniques; (KOÇEL, 2005; 349-350) -Lean Management and Organization (Lean Management and Organization), In Business Process Renewal (Exchange Engineering, Process Renewal, Business Process Reengineering, Reengineering); -Total Quality Management (Quality Safety, Quality Assurance, Total Quality Management); -Team (Team) Organization (Team-Based Organization); -Learning Organization (Learning Organization);
  5. 5. -Level Reduction (Delayering); -Basic (Self) Expertise (Core Competence); -Benchmarking; -Strengthening Personnel (Empowerment); -Beneficiaries of Outsourcing to (outsourcing); -Creating Strategic Alliance (Strategic Alliances); -Shrinkage (Organizational Shrinkage, downsizing); -Size-appropriate Discovery (Rightsizing); Type of Organization-Network (Network Organizations); -Hybrid Organization Structures (Hybrid Organizations); -Cluster Organizations; -Zero Hierarchy.. Total Quality Management: Quality, customer expectations of goods & services to give the opposite is even more to be. Quality event "technical" (statistical quality control) from an application beyond a "philosophy" has become. Basic (core, core) Capabilities - Core Competence: Basic skills, a business that separates you from other business enterprises to realize the vision of the fundamental role that competitors can not be imitated easily by the knowledge, skills and capabilities represents. In today's conditions "to innovate" to business competitiveness is the most basic skills. Basic skills, good business affairs to know some things from other companies to become well know, well know outside of work to be done all the work done to others and to innovate constantly to focus on is shipped. Outsourcing from the Resource Request - Outsourcing: Organization of a growing extent, only that they have their own talents and skills based jobs to want to do, "core competence" or basic skills in use of business organization other than businesses tend to buy, a common "outsourcing" or "from outside sources exploit "application has revealed. That considered the above changes and developments affecting the organization and functioning of the structure, the current life used in the formation of several new organization has provided. Below this new field of application of most of those organizations are discussed. Network Organizations: This type of basic features of the structure: a product or service should be made for generating business and activities and that the resources required for a single business rather than the collection within the different businesses is that it is distributed. The main reason for the emergence, operation of the environmental changes that can respond immediately a lilt to reach, to increase efficiency and business and professional know that essential work to do other jobs within the framework of a market discipline transferred to other organizations is the idea. Cluster Organization: Yığışım organization in a sense, "working group organization" is synonymous with. Here, a group of people from different disciplines by creating a permanent or temporary basis, perform work that is certain. The group's activities and not with hierarchical control, but group members will conduct themselves in a system will develop between them. The most important feature of this understanding of the organization, within yığışım people, hierarchical differences based on class and not with authority but to produce results, mainly to share information and communication tasks.
  6. 6. Renewal process engineering-change-again süreçleme (Reengineering, Business Process Reengineering) process renewal, to ensure continuous and small developments, not deep- rooted and is a concept about making major changes. Classical structures have introverted to highlight the required goods or a service-producing jobs in the process of the different departments have been distributed to both quickly and to act not because of the process of revising the configuration that describes the "renewal process" concept of development environment has found. -Hybrid (hybrid) and centrifugal organization structure and functioning is dominant. Hybrid Organizations: Hybrid organizational structure of departments in large enterprises in different directions in the organization and structure expresses. Large enterprises and products around the complex activities of a variety of organizational structures in more than one application requires. This type of environment managers, product-related activities, the environment and the strategies required to prefer structure. A section according to geographical area, other than a section and another section to the functions of the team in question may be configured according to. This type of basic issues in organizational structure, effective coordination by senior management and audit system is that you can install. (KOPARAL, 2003) 2.5. Hybrid-Hybrid Organizations This type of organization and dynamics of different forms with a combination was formed. This organization model, modern themes, which directly relates to the complexity and granularity of. Hybrid Organizations, is a mixture of organic and mechanical systems. Mechanical system, the basic features similar to the bureaucratic structure, represents a solid structure. Static environment is appropriate. Certain duties and responsibilities, clear hierarchy, specialization has duties. Organic system, the quality to fit changing circumstances, more flexible structure is a management system. Contrary to the duties and responsibilities flexible mechanical systems and horizontal hierarchy of the system is applied. New technologies to be used by businesses, more market-oriented structure to ensure the structures are for the conversion options have been. Reshaping the structure of their business or business to decide when you are in communication & cooperation with business organizations to function based on whether the teams do on the actual selection is made: (DAY, G; 1999; 194) 1.In organizations, cross-functional (cross functional) information sharing and cooperation between departments is limited level, based on economies of scale and capabilities to function if there is a vertical organization structure and functional hierarchy is called. 2. In organizations, cross-functional (cross functional) information sharing and cooperation between departments is a very high level, economies of scale and capabilities based on the team if there is a horizontal organizational structure and core competencies focused on the processes from different disciplines of the team is formed. 3.Eğer cross-functional organizations (cross functional) information sharing and cooperation between departments is high, but the function is based on a hybrid-hybrid organizational
  7. 7. structure of the hierarchy is created. Hybrid organizations, more than one process can realize the team is comprised of continuous. If this information sharing and cooperation in organizations increases the heads of these teams are assigned to the functional manager. 4.Eğer cross-functional organizations (cross functional) information sharing and cooperation between departments within organizations is relatively low, although information sharing and cooperation is an important project team consisting of a temporary high hybrid-hybrid organizational structure is created. As we have seen above, based on function and communication is not important vertical organizations, communication and team-based organizations as strong horizontal organizations that could be seen. An organization's vertical, horizontal, should be whether a hybrid organization did decide we need to review before the organization of this type. (DAY, G; 1999; 194) Vertical Organizations: The traditional vertical organization type, with particular focus on strategy is ideal for small and medium-sized businesses. These organizations, customers' needs and requirements are met for the item and accordingly is also completely different goods and services generates. Example: Powdered sugar factory. Products are standard, customer expectations are standard, the price of products, features is straight forward. Such general information sharing and strong leadership in business, the organization itself is good enough to adjust to the market. Inelastic to the system owner, employee-oriented and cost of capital is required to optimize the layout hierarchy employed by the organization are, or extraction. These organizations are very clear job description is as certain. Work to be done, with thick lines are separated from each other, each position requires expertise and experience. The weakest point is the coordination of the vertical hierarchy. Many mid-level managers of the feedback that the information collected, management and priorities of the messages to convey and explain their dependents managers in these organizations is important because the key source of information flow and arrangement of these people depend on. Her own functional area manager is available in this area themselves, they do their jobs, but are not in good communication with each other. Only focus functions. Therefore, the lack of product integration, customer demand and high production costs can proceed with the appeal to the cause. This complex problem needs to be on top of market demand and competitors' new products or services by developing new strategies constantly to follow should be taken as the significant threat. (DAY, G; 1999; 194) Horizontal Organizations: Horizontal organizations, natural workflow and processes are based on fundamental skills. The vertical organizational structure rather than seen in the functional hierarchy, such as product manager and team coordinator of the horizontal organization structures are observed. Thanks to the integration and coordination between departments, departments will compete with each other, a common denominator in how to better meet customer demands and requirements on the concept will develop. (DAY, G; 1999; 194) Backbone of an organization's core competencies are based on processes can say. Developing new products, such as supply chain or any process, consisting of professionals from multiple disciplines is the responsibility of the team. Teams, such as customer satisfaction with the process was the result of the activities that can be compared with competitors such as order processing time, such as features and capabilities are measured by external targets. Information, through the internal network is shared by all team members. (usually with the
  8. 8. intranet) and thus, information and filtering again, misquotation, and orientation will also have disappeared. (DAY, G; 1999; 195) Horizontal organizational structure or process-based organization in the organizational structure to have, allows the formation of new management positions (Workman, John, 1993). The names of the organizations created in the new management positions, department director, section leader, director and supervisor can. Instead, on the role of an organization are the three main managers (DAY, G; 1999; 195): Process owners: These people have their design processes, on the basis of days of observation of the activities of the team, is responsible for managing and reporting. They have teams that perform process creation, execution, management and performance are responsible. These people, to keep the goals at the highest level, resource use and the work they do at their maximum level and processes related to work hard to give instant feedback. To achieve targets set for themselves and to increase efficiency by creating an internal competitive environment are motivated to provide maximum benefit. Coaches: Expertise and experience in areas requiring skills development of employees, and are responsible for training. Training and sharing experiences with new practices, procedures and technical competencies and processes required to make business, to ensure continuity of development and the tool will need. Leaders: The organization's core competencies based on the process together with the basic processes for creating effective strategies to create a synergy and strategies are required with creating a unifying logic and philosophy. Direct observation in the light of their organizations by making referrals, use of resources and organizations that make the rest of the operating principles of the shape of the creation of the organization leads. On the other hand, choices and preferences at any time or from top to bottom may not be suitable for organizations, employees very little part of the strategy may fail yaypıp. On the other hand, many employees also can be a major player in the ongoing dialogue strategy can provide and can be successful. These leaders, the organization to recognize the good, the process depends on good follow-up and routing. There are many important factors that define the horizontal organization is built. These organizations, with fewer layers of hierarchy, because teams and less able to manage itself the responsibility of guiding team are necessary. These teams, their direction could only need a simple upper echelons of management. The second factor, the team will continuously improve themselves and to maximize attitude has. Finally, these organizations, who can easily adapt itself when conditions change, and if necessary have the ability to re-configure. (VIRDEN, 1995; 24-40) Horizontal organizations, may not always be in a pure structure. Horizontal built many successful organizations, on some fundamental processes at the same time experts are organized. On the other hand, we give the following example, the organization's core competencies and some special functions on the process, but a classic pharmaceutical companies specialize in the seven-level managers, while this company has only three stages. 2.5.2. Hybrid Organization Definitions Two main strategies for businesses is implementing international activities. One of these multi-national (Multi-domestic) strategy and one global strategy.
  9. 9. Organizational structure is formed by the hybrid strategy in the global strategy is a step ahead. Hybrid organizational structure of departments in large enterprises in different directions in the organization and structure expresses. Large enterprises and product diversity of the complex activities of the environment, more than one application requires a combination of organizational structure. This type of environment managers, product-related activities, the environment and the strategies required to prefer structure. According to geographical areas in a section, other than a section and another section for the following functions according to the team in question could be restructured. This type of basic issues in organizational structure, effective coordination by senior management and audit system is that you can install. (KOPARAL, 2003; 104) According to Miller and Dess'e; hybrid strategy units in various countries continue their activities but not only from the center of an international relations also with each other in the execution as. These three strategies related to the properties can be explained as follows (EREN, 2000:267-268): International (Multidomestic) Strategy • Various countries are independent units. • Each unit is independent from the others in their own market operates. • International Center different from other units carry a feature. Global Strategy • a central unit is connected to various countries and it is under control. • International markets central to various countries and work makes the search for standard products. • To create economies of scale in production activities is carried out from a center. Hybrid (Hybrid) Strategy • units in various countries from a center of activity and also perform in relation to each other constantly. • units in different countries can meet only karsılaştıkları exception. • Multi-customer needs for mobility, if that is the mutual resistance. • Telecommunications and internet facilities benefit. • All organizations regardless of where the source uses. Global competition act fast to avoid missing customers. 2.5.3. A hybrid organizations Example: Astra Merck Astra Merck, the drug development and sales sector with a turnover of several billion dollars is a huge company. Astra Merck, the organization has chosen when setting up a hybrid structure. In 1992 the Swedish-American partnership, joint-venture production company which was established as a drug. Traditional pharmaceutical companies, pharmaceutical professionals through a presentation to introduce their products to doctors and the sample had opted for a marketing way. Doctors also tested samples from them and wants to get pharmaceutical companies were. As a result of drug purchases in 1993 of the centralization of this relationship between doctors and drug companies, was shaken from the foundation. Purchasing managers, drug activity and price / benefit ratio began to look to its height. Thus sales team starts to decrease while the cost of sales, income of 25% - 30 'on top of flour began. (DAY, G; 1999; 196-197)
  10. 10. When she started the new management and a white page, employment dismissal was more than many a dealer. Decentralized business units are formed. Business units, consisting of professionals from different disciplines work teams consist of building blocks and an architecture based on 15 key business processes are built upon. Cornerstone of this system, America 's 31 provinces of the team for each business unit are organized. Each unit experience and knowledge about drugs has scientists. These people, and contact with professionals in the pharmaceutical sector are both customers and business managers provides information and technical support. Business units, customer requests and needs and be able to apply the skills and experience could easily find solutions in the market and very strong team consists of experts. To manage this decentralized structure, Astra Zenica, providing easy access to product information that can be used company-wide focus on systems investments made. Furthermore, go to the customers request and will respond to the needs "drug solutions" team was set up for each area of expertise. This team development, licensing, marketing, sales and product supply is composed of experts, different teams for internal medicine, urology is a different team. These teams, from different disciplines working solutions-oriented business unit (business unit) teams are the teams that support professional. Astra Zenica, horizontal close to the benefits of the hybrid organizational structure in 1998, began to see. In 1992, the company $ 1 billion in revenue, $ 4 billion revenue in 1998 and a was removed. Customer satisfaction level exceeded the industry average. 67 different geographic areas close to 2400 people with sales representative Astra, on IT and HR in the region that support business managers and clients managed by the center opened and 67 regions, these centers began reporting to. All of these teams to the management of the value chain by providing the team has created a hierarchy. 2.5.4. Hybrid Organizations Today, many companies have a horizontal organizational structure is vertical rather than horizontal structures are to establish organizational structure. The first 500 companies in America in the 73 research units at the company, none of the actual landscape, but only 32% of organizations do not have 'll keep the traditional organizational structure is indicated. (Boston Consulting, 1995) Other companies, 38% for specific projects have been narrowing the scope, duration and specific purpose from different disciplinary professional team of specialists employed in the functional groups on the functional processes realizes. 30% of staff with the functional business processes does it. Unilever, Kraft manufactures such as fast-moving consumer goods firms, hybrid organizational structure of their outset in 1990 tries. All commercial organizations, low inflation, local competition, private brands and labels, is under pressure because of new retail formats. Larger and more powerful retailers, supply chain integration and less in higher unit costs in a shorter time to receive their products are. Promotion costs increase while the decrease in product cost are required. Brand or product managers in the traditional organizational structure, increasing stress on the management and coordination have failed. (DAY, G; 1999; 198) With hybrid organizational structure in the enterprises, ergonomic product design, experienced engineering group, different from its competitors and a more advantageous financial solutions that will produce financial group, with business customers to increase the integration between information processing in groups such as the vertical structure of
  11. 11. disciplines are developing. Despite the ambitious desire of process engineers, each time from product development from research or a built-in right-center field to groups of internal control mechanisms should be established. (DAY, G; 1999; 199) Hybrid structured organizations, requiring expertise of the functions performed by the groups are combined horizontal structure. Marketing, strategy development and to integrate functions such as human resources, the organization's focus on core competencies, resources and coordination mechanisms of the formation of distinctive provide. Such as research and development and market research functions that require expertise and experience, to provide technical support and new ideas and filling of the horizontal structure provides. New ideas for filling the horizontal structure, assimilates ideas from outside organizations, or teams with learning through the transfer of information is possible. As a result of this, organizations, departments and disciplines based on the traditional "center of excellence" (Center of Excellence), and then begin with the formation of this vertical structure is of modified. Thus, customer-oriented sales, engineering is focused on the technical design. Function as coaches, managers before the begin to play a more central role. The figure below fast-moving consumer packaged goods belonging to enterprises producing hybrid organizational structure can be seen. (DAY, G; 1999; 200) Although there are many different structures in hybrid organizations, the following features, shared common characteristics in successful organizations are hybrids: (Boehm, R, 1996; 128-143) A. perched on the current functional structure constant teams: The following names are given three or four teams consisting of: Category management teams, adding value to the consumer market and will go deep finding activities, implementation and customer interaction with the entry into and is responsible for keeping the high brand value. Marketing, finance, sales, production and R & D 'will consist of representatives coming from. Customer management teams, retail and commercial customers' satisfaction and customer service to bring the maximum level of efficiency at the highest level are responsible for keeping. With customers, develop strong relationships, and organizations as well as cost- cutting solutions for customers and operations are included in the will. Field sales, marketing, promotion, logistics and sales are made up of representatives coming from. Supply chain management team, product categories, raw materials and semi-manufactured supplies, products or services are responsible for the production and shipment to the customer. Production, purchasing, shipping and quality are composed of representatives coming from. Product development teams, the target customers of products and services that can add value to the discovery and development are responsible for creating the concept. R & D, marketing and production are made up of representatives coming from. Organization structure and complex grows, the number of teams is increasing. Kraft company team in the 35 categories, 30 units and 175 units of supply chain team has the customer team. (As of 1996) B. Provisional duty has not come with real teams:
  12. 12. These teams, the day of their work and activities, carry out operations. Team members reporting to a functional group, even though the team activities and spend the entire time. Team into the meetings, with access to e-mail and shared databases are connected. Sets focus to keep the category, or the realization of the retail account sales and collection of the sales value of targets as a comparison is made permanent and his team, performance and objectives are evaluated according to the percentage of access. All teams, has the right to access to private resources, so that continuous and non-formal learning within the organization becomes. Thus, an interactive promotion specialist, a team alone can not get up from under the service and expertise in numerous categories gerekitiren can do alone. C. In Process Integration: Re-engineering the most painful side issues, one or two very carefully selected and designed to process, can not be integrated with the entire process is a problem. Mechanisms for integration without creating new walls and harmony within the organization is disturbed. This is a strategic partner to move to the front of the goal and philosophy should be applied. Some organizations, strategy and implementation teams are heading that takes a snapshot of where the organization. Who are our target audience? Which values are pursuing? How we use our resources and how we will achieve an advantage.? How do special requests will be met? How much will be invested in new products? ... such questions are asked. The other integration methods, and a few teams who share the goal of crossing the joint team composed of members are interlock team. These members, the category of the team of supply chain team that can tell a new package type, so the production time loss at the entrance to the uninhabitable. (ARMSTRONG. 1996; 126-135) Competitiveness of enterprises in international markets to reduce transaction costs to minimize the transactions have been partially or completely internalized. In contrast, transaction costs as a solution to the issue of the three main reasons for the hybrid structure can be minimized. The hybrid structure to perform the process they are independent businesses, but between the long-term and trust-based contracts do. Therefore, enterprises do not behave opportunistic. In this structure the transaction costs arising from private investment to eliminate the investment of the enterprises is common. Hierarchical structure to reduce transaction costs in cost-effective results than the hybrid structure gives a hierarchical structure but could not keep pace with technological innovation and bureaucratic costs of the hybrid structure is more attractive than makes here. (AUFFREITER, 1996; 199-208) Businesses, to reduce transaction costs of their own countries political, economic and social structures adhering to the appropriate strategies to develop hybrid or hierarchical structure. Being implemented in Japan, operating in different areas of the Keiretsu system, each taking a certain percentage of the shares of each other's management will participate in. Hybrid and hierarchical structure created by some of the features combined in this system, all businesses need to do almost all transactions in the system can perform. Showing similar characteristics to the hybrid structure in China Guanxi system, the different business managers in key positions in the search because of the common goals between these enterprises based on trust and long-term which is the creation of a strategic partnership. (BRONZE, 2003; 56-67) Where there are very high labor costs in our country, export prices in the base of the competitive success of our business is an important way to consider the transaction costs are required. Our business, our country's political, economic, cultural and legal structure, taking into account the real facts of its own sector and sustainable strategies to develop compatible
  13. 13. with that reduce transaction costs. Small and medium-sized businesses in our hybrid or hierarchical structure, taking into account characteristics may create strategic partnerships, they more successful in exports, will ensure a stronger and more profitable. (BRONZE, 2004; 51-60) 3.SUMMARY 21st century technological and economic developments experienced in the large size of the scales of all kinds of organizations are changing and more complex structure of businesses and activities are directed to the system. Therefore, as a result of operating managers can succeed can catch the opportunities and dangers to encounter can foresee, the right to have their information better and more reliable to create strategies and they have created an efficient way these strategies are required to apply During the implementation of global strategies of enterprises to obtain positive results have a significant share of the organizational structure is. The process of globalization and the emerging modern competitive strategy, organizational structure and that the preparation of the contribution to the rapidly changing environmental conditions and that they have can adapt more efficiently using resources that could be seen. The hybrid organizational structure of modern organizations, 1990's has gained importance since the beginning of the year. What is the vertical organizational structure, such as multilevel, complex processes do not contain a large number of specialists in the branch and the weak of experts do not communicate with each other, nor that require expertise in areas such as horizontal organizational structure is weak. Integration is in process, for areas that require expertise and experience to have a vertical configuration. Information, it is common in all organizations and all organizations with a common platform for knowledge is. There are no teams in the organization, such as horizontal as temporary, permanent team of experts from different disciplines have. Both areas requiring technical expertise, while preserving the rule because of both organizations is the horizontal high-efficiency, hierarchy level is low. Supply chain, customer, category and product management processes with the basic structures that are separate deal. Thus, organizations, market changes, customer requests and needs a more flexible and can move quickly, production and operating costs are much diminished. Hybrid organizations, because of construction in the coming years will gain more importance and become more widespread.