CON 121 Session 2 - Production

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CON 121 Session 2 - Production

  1. 1. CON 121Concrete AggregateSession 2Concrete Aggregates Production 1
  2. 2. Crushed Stone, Sand, and Gravel Most Abundant Natural Resource Used From Earliest Time of Civilization Fundamental Building Block-Modern Society
  3. 3. Aggregate Production-USGS (2006) 2.9 Billion Metric tons 9.8 tons/person Types of Aggregates  Crushed Stone- Higher volume  Sand/Gravel
  4. 4. Aggregate Locations
  5. 5. Aggregate Trends Crushed Stone  Smaller Footprint  Limestone Reserves–100’s Feet Thick Sand/ Gravel  Surficial Alluvial Deposits  Reserves-50 Feet Deep
  6. 6. Limestone QuarriesQuarry face may vary depending on limestone deposit.
  7. 7. Sand and Gravel PitsSand dredged from lake and conveyed and moved with front-end loader
  8. 8. Land Use Concerns Mining Access  Farmland-Agricultural  Construction Sites Populated Areas  Permitting  Environmental noise  Dust Issues
  9. 9. Aggregate Reserve Types Class A – Proven Class B – Probable Class C – Indicated Class D – Inferred
  10. 10. Production States (2006) Leading Crush Stone  Leading Sand/Gravel  Pennsylvania  California  Texas  Texas  Florida  Michigan  Illinois  Arizona  Georgia  Ohio
  11. 11. Active Production (2006) Operations  Average Output  5600 Crushed stone  Crushed Stone Quarry quarries 175,000 tons  7000 Sand/Gravel  Sand/Gravel Quarry quarries 100,000 tons
  12. 12. Types of Primary Crushers Compression  Single Toggle Jaw Crusher  Double Toggle Jaw Crusher  Gyratory Crusher Impact  Single roll/Hammer Mill  Double roll/Hammer Mills
  13. 13. Types of Primary Crushers
  14. 14. Aggregate Processing Basic Processing  Crushing  Screening  Washing Benefication  Heavy media separation  Jigging  Rising-current classification  Crushing
  15. 15. Crushing/Washing Screens used to Separate  Smaller Screens  Larger Screens Aggregate Crushed & Screened Several Times Aggregate Stockpiled According to Size
  16. 16. Screening and Storing
  17. 17. Heavy Media Separation Heavy Liquid – Relative Density (SpG) Heavier Particles Sink Lighter Particles Float
  18. 18. Jigging Separation Particles Separated by Density Differences Upward Pulsations of Water Move Lighter Particles on Top are Removed
  19. 19. Rising-Current Classification Particles with Large Differences in Density Separate Lighter Particles Float
  20. 20. Handling and Storing Minimize Separation Minimize Degradation Minimize Contamination
  21. 21. Aggregate Stockpiles Truck-Dump Method Clamshelled Bucket Method Conveyor Belt
  22. 22. Concrete Aggregates ProductionPlease return to Blackboard and watch thefollowing videos: Video 1: Storing / Handling Video 2: Particle Shape / Surface Texture

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