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Using the Frame-Chapter 1


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Using the Frame-Chapter 1

  1. 1. Photographic Design The Image Frame
  2. 2. Frame Dynamics <ul><li>The shape of your frame in camera influences how you compose </li></ul><ul><li>The edges of the frame can be important or not </li></ul>
  3. 3. Alignment <ul><li>Aligning with the frame edges emphasizes geometry </li></ul><ul><li>Often considered formal framing </li></ul>
  4. 4. alignment
  5. 8. Diagonal Tension <ul><li>Diagonals interact with the frame edges to create tension </li></ul><ul><li>Diagonals can also give a feeling of movement </li></ul>
  6. 9. diagonal tension
  7. 13. Frame Shape The shape of your viewfinder usually dictates how you will frame your image
  8. 14. The Human Eye <ul><li>Human ’s see horizontally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore: we tend to frame horizontally more often </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This can be pleasing, but sometimes boring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also, many cameras are not comfortable to hold vertically </li></ul></ul>
  9. 15. Aspect Ratio <ul><li>Width divided by height </li></ul><ul><li>3:2 </li></ul><ul><li>4:3 </li></ul><ul><li>1:1 </li></ul><ul><li>16:9 </li></ul>
  10. 17. The 3:2 Standard Frame <ul><li>35mm film(36x24mm) is the 3:2 standard frame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2:3 when vertical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is the frame ratio used in SLRs </li></ul><ul><li>More difficult to frame with because of it ’s elongated shape </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult for portrait composition </li></ul><ul><li>Placing an object lower in the frame enhances the sense of balance </li></ul>
  11. 18. 3:2 standard frame
  12. 19. What not to do
  13. 21. Panorama <ul><li>Conducive to horizon line </li></ul><ul><li>Good for long scenes that do not need to show depth </li></ul>
  14. 22. panorama
  15. 25. 4:3 Frame <ul><li>“ Fatter” frames </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a less dominant direction but can still be horizontal or vertical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used in point and shoot cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to compose in </li></ul><ul><li>Fit better onto printing papers and computer monitors </li></ul>
  16. 26. 4:3 frame
  17. 28. Shooting Horizontally <ul><li>More natural position to takes photos from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We see horizontally because of how our eyes are positioned on our heads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It ’s easier to hold the camera horizontally </li></ul></ul>
  18. 31. Vertical Subject in a Horizontal Frame <ul><li>Forces you to back up and show more background </li></ul><ul><li>Generally the subject is placed to one side to encourage the viewer ’s eye to move horizontally across the frame </li></ul>
  19. 36. Shooting Vertically <ul><li>Not as natural to the human eye </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical Low: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tendency of most is to place the object low in the frame to create a sense of stability, but this creates a waste of space in the top of the frame </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vertical Figure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The standing human figure lends itself to vertical framing as well as trees, buildings, bottles…. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 42. Horizontal Subject in a Vertical Frame <ul><li>Forces you to either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>back up to fit everything into the frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop out parts that don ’t fit into the frame </li></ul></ul>
  21. 44. Filling the Frame <ul><li>First you have to isolate your subject </li></ul><ul><li>Now you have to decide how close to get to your subject </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you fill the frame with your subject, more detail can be seen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are further away, you can show more of the context surrounding your subject </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You need to decide whether the surrounding are important to the subject or if they help with the composition </li></ul>
  22. 46. varying size in frame
  23. 47. varying size in frame
  24. 48. varying size in frame
  25. 49. varying size in frame
  26. 50. Placement <ul><li>If your not filling your frame with your subject the problem becomes where to put your object in the frame </li></ul><ul><li>To escape the bull's-eye method you can put the object to one side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But, you need a reason to put your subject in an “unnatural” position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: putting an object in a far corner when there is nothing else in the frame </li></ul></ul>
  27. 51. Placement <ul><li>As your subject gets smaller, where you place it gets increasingly important </li></ul><ul><li>Placing the subject in the middle is stable, but putting it to one side creates more tension between the object and it ’s surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>A secondary subject will also affect your composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even the sun can be considered a secondary subject when it is not in the frame </li></ul></ul>
  28. 52. placement
  29. 53. Dividing the Frame <ul><li>The frame can be divided into infinite combinations </li></ul><ul><li>In painting, the painter can create precise mathematical divisions, but the photographer has to work by eye </li></ul><ul><li>The photographer can take these mathematical divisions and apply them to make pleasing composition </li></ul>
  30. 54. Horizon <ul><li>The horizon forces you to divide the frame cleanly </li></ul><ul><li>Placement of the horizon is extremely important, especially if there is no other graphic elements present </li></ul><ul><li>One method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use linear relationships like rule of thirds, fibonacci… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Another method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance by tones or colors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A third method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide whether your ground or sky is ultimately more important to the shot </li></ul></ul>
  31. 55. Middle horizon
  32. 57. Low Horizon
  33. 61. High Horizon
  34. 65. Frames within Frames <ul><li>Having an internal frame is an established design formula that almost always works, but can become cliché </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It can add a feeling of stability and focuses the viewer on your subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is also interesting to play with the shape of the frame and the shape of the internal frame </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On a deeper level, it relates to perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It helps to convert the 3D scene we see and the 2D end product of the photograph </li></ul></ul>
  35. 66. frame in frame
  36. 67. frame in frame