Photo Design-Chapter 3-Photo Elements


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Photo Design-Chapter 3-Photo Elements

  1. 1. photographic elements Chapter 3 continued
  2. 2. Focus <ul><li>Sharp focus is an accepted standard </li></ul><ul><li>The question of where to focus is usually very obvious, but can be used as a design element </li></ul><ul><li>Focus is so engrained into us that whatever is in focus becomes the point of attention </li></ul><ul><li>You have to make the decision of what to focus on what kind of depth of field you want. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In dark situations you may be limited to shallow depth of field, but in brighter situations it is a choice you will need to make </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Focus <ul><li>Focus contains a directionality from unsharp to sharp </li></ul><ul><li>Think about your lens ’s focal length and its affect on focus and depth of field </li></ul>
  4. 4. Focus and movement from focus
  5. 5. Selective Focus <ul><li>Choosing one specific are to focus on gives to viewer a clear idea of what the photographer wants them to look at </li></ul><ul><li>Having the out of focus parts of the frame still be intelligible helps this affect also </li></ul><ul><li>Selective focus is a decision in depth of field </li></ul>
  6. 6. selective focus
  7. 10.
  8. 11.
  9. 12.
  10. 13.
  11. 14. Motion <ul><li>The range of sharp to unsharp can also be controlled with the use of motion and motion blur </li></ul><ul><li>Motion blur can be caused by camera shake(a jerky ghosting effect), streaking from a moving subject, and panning…there are also combinations of these </li></ul><ul><li>There is also a technique called rear curtain shutter technique in which the subject is blurred from a long exposure and then a flash is shot off at the end of the exposure to superimpose a sharp shot on top of the blurred shot </li></ul>
  12. 15. motion
  13. 16. motion blur
  14. 24. Moment <ul><li>Only completely static objects do not concern timing </li></ul><ul><li>Timing can concern milliseconds of a quick action or the hours waited to get the best light for a shot </li></ul><ul><li>The “Decisive Moment” is that moment when the elements in motion are in balance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henri Cartier-Bresson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This action, whatever it may be, inevitably affects the design of the photograph </li></ul><ul><li>As a photographer, you must try to anticipate the composition as the objects move in your scene </li></ul>
  15. 25. Moment/repetitive action
  16. 26. anticipation
  17. 32. Optics <ul><li>Photography is made optically, so lens type is very important to the design process </li></ul><ul><li>Focal length affects the geometry of the image as well as the focus and depth of field </li></ul><ul><li>Some lenses can also change the shape of objects, like fisheye or tilt lenses </li></ul><ul><li>The focal length affects the angle of view and thus affects the linear structure of an image as well as depth perception and size relationships </li></ul>
  18. 33. Wide angle optics <ul><li>Shorter focal length means wider angle of view </li></ul><ul><li>Taken with little foreground there will be little change made to the perception of depth, but with a foreground a wide angle lens gives and impressive sense of depth </li></ul><ul><li>Wide angle also tends to produce diagonal lines which increases dynamic tension </li></ul><ul><li>They also encourage a subjective point of view drawing the viewer into the scene </li></ul><ul><li>On the edges of a wide angle lens there is a stretching effect which helps to envelope the viewer like a circle </li></ul><ul><li>It also emphasizes that the scene continues beyond the frame </li></ul>
  19. 34. optics/wide angle
  20. 35. wide angle dynamic lines
  21. 36. wide angle perspective effects
  22. 45. Telephoto Optics <ul><li>Telephoto lenses have a strong tendency to compress objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make objects that are far apart appear closer together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With a telephoto lens, you are taking the photo from further away and this give a more objective view </li></ul>
  23. 46. optics/400mm
  24. 47. telephoto compression
  25. 51. Fisheye <ul><li>Circular fisheye allows you to see the round edges of the lense </li></ul><ul><li>Full frame fisheye covers the entire sensor filling the rectangular frame </li></ul>
  26. 54. Tilt Lens <ul><li>Titling the lens tilts the plane of focus </li></ul><ul><li>Even at the smallest aperture you can distribute the focus at will </li></ul><ul><li>The sensor or film plane can also be tilted which will have this affect on the focus but will also stretch the image in the direction the sensor is tilted </li></ul>
  27. 56. tilt lens
  28. 60. Exposure <ul><li>Exposure also plays a role </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure is assumed to have one possibility </li></ul><ul><li>We tend to look at the brightest thing in the image first </li></ul><ul><li>High contrast calls attention to darks and lights while low contrast allows the eye to wander over the image </li></ul>
  29. 61. lighter exposure
  30. 62. darker exposure
  31. 63. Flare -happens when you point your camera at a light source -Can take on many different appearances -it’s helpful to have an object halfway block the light -consider using a polarizing filter if you want strong starburst type flare **Flare is technically considered incorrect
  32. 64. Flare
  33. 65. Flare
  34. 66. Flare
  35. 68. Glare -glare is often mistaken for flare FLARE AND GLARE ARE NOT THE SAME -glare happens when a bright light is REFLECTED off of a shiny object
  36. 69. Silhouette -you must have your subject in a relatively dark place with a strong light coming from behind -you are using backlighting to make a creative exposure -meter the light coming from behind your subject rather than on your subject -bracket to make sure you got a pure silhouette
  37. 70. Silhouette
  38. 71. Silhouette