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Art Appreciation-Chapter17


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Art Appreciation-Chapter17

  1. 1. Traditional Arts of Asia Chapter 17
  2. 2. India <ul><li>Much of what we now consider as Indian culture was begun by Aryan tribes that invaded around 1500BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Their system of gods and social structure are the foundation of Indian society </li></ul><ul><li>Key beliefs are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The universe cycles through creation and destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals are reincarnated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is one supreme form of wisdom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buddhism was a major influence </li></ul>
  3. 3. Historical Map of Asia. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
  4. 4. Great Stupa . Sanchi, India. 10 B.C.E. – 15 C.E. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
  5. 5. Great Stupa <ul><li>Stupa - domelike structure evolved from burial mounds </li></ul><ul><li>Has four gates in the four cardinal directions </li></ul><ul><li>The devout walk around the stupa in a ritual path </li></ul><ul><li>These were built in sacred locations and often contained relics </li></ul><ul><li>Relief sculptures cover the gates and depict stories from Buddha’s life without directly depicting him </li></ul>
  6. 6. Eastern gate of The Great Stupa . 10 B.C.E. – 15 C.E. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
  7. 7. Evolution of Buddhist Architecture . a. Early Indian stupa. 3rd century to early 1st century B.C.E.; b. Later Indian stupa. 2nd century C.E.; c. Chinese pagoda. 5th to 7th centuries C.E.; d. Japanese pagoda. 7th century C.E. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
  8. 8. Bodhisattva . N.W. Pakistan, Gandhara region. Late 2nd Century C.E. Kushana period. Overall: 109.5 × 38.1 × 22.9 cm, 89.4 kg (43-1/8&quot; × 15&quot; × 9&quot;, 197.09 lb). Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
  9. 9. Bodhisattva <ul><li>Bodhisattva-a person who is on the point of achieving enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhara style </li></ul><ul><li>These figures are often shown wearing rich garments and jewels </li></ul><ul><li>The sculptor had knowledge of Greek sculpture and techniques </li></ul>
  10. 10. Standing Buddha . 5th Century. Height 5'3&quot;. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
  11. 11. Standing Buddha <ul><li>Gupta style combines Ghandara style naturalism with native Indian ways of seeing </li></ul><ul><li>Simplified figure </li></ul><ul><li>Soft, rounded figure enhanced by curves </li></ul><ul><li>The drapery seems wet and clings to the body </li></ul><ul><li>Conventions of depicting Buddha: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He wears the simple garment of a monk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His earlobes are long signifying his earlier life as a prince who wore expensive earrings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The topknot on his head signifies enlightenment </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Kandarya Mahadeva Temple <ul><li>The Hindu temple becomes the major architectural form of India </li></ul><ul><li>Typically has two parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Porch for purification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Womb chamber where an image of the god is kept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rounded projecting forms symbolize male and female sexuality </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Kandarya Mahadeva Temple . Khajurãho, India. Exterior. 10th–11th Centuries. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
  14. 14. Scene from Kandarya Mahadeva Temple . Erotic reliefs. Chandella dynasty, 1025–1050 C.E. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
  15. 15. Erotic Relief from Kandarya Mahadeva Temple <ul><li>Erotic scenes cover the outside of the structure </li></ul><ul><li>In Hindu belief, union with God is related to the sensual pleasure of erotic love </li></ul><ul><li>An allegory for spritual union </li></ul>
  16. 16. Nataraja, Shiva as King of Dance . South India. Chola Period, 11th Century. Height: 111.5 cm. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
  17. 17. Shiva as King of Dance <ul><li>Shiva is the god of the creation, preservation, dissolution, and re-creation of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Shiva is performing the cosmic dance in the orb of the sun </li></ul><ul><li>The circle of flame is the purifying fire of destruction and creation </li></ul><ul><li>He taps on a small drum to mark cosmic rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>The sculpture strongly implies movement </li></ul>
  18. 18. China <ul><li>Chinese civilization is characterized by three traditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucianism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daoism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Terra Cotta Warriors . Pit No. 1, Museum of the First Emperor of Qin. Shaanxi Province, China. Qin dynasty. c. 210 B.C.E. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
  20. 20. Terra Cotta Warriors <ul><li>Emporor Qin ordered an army of clay soldiers to protect him in the afterlife </li></ul><ul><li>6000 life-size sculptures protect his tomb </li></ul>
  21. 21. Watching the Deer by a Pin-Shaded Stream by Ma Yuan <ul><li>Traditional Chinese Painting has two major focal points: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calligraphy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most landscapes did not depict an actual location, but a creation by the artist </li></ul><ul><li>A poetic, smaller landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Meticulous brushwork </li></ul><ul><li>“ one-corner Ma”-he was called this because of his tendency to leave large portions of the work unpainted </li></ul>
  22. 22. Ma Yuan. Watching the Deer by a Pine-Shaded Stream . Southern Song Dynasty. 24.2 × 25.4 cm. 9-1/2&quot; × 10&quot;. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
  23. 23. Porcelain Plate . Chinese. Late Yuan dynasty. Mid-14th Century. Diameter 18&quot;. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
  24. 25. Porcelain Plate <ul><li>The Chinese had a rare clay (porcelain) that turns pure white when fired </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally these are decorated with blue because it was the only color that could withstand the high firing temperatures needed for the porcelain </li></ul>
  25. 26. Avatamaska Sutra ( Hwaomgyong ), Vol. 12 13th–14th Century. Korea, Goryeo period. 8&quot; × 17-1/4&quot;. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
  26. 27. Avatamaska Sutra <ul><li>Sutra - book of Buddhist teachings </li></ul><ul><li>A book page illustrated using fine strands of gold and silver </li></ul>
  27. 28. Japan <ul><li>The indigenous religion of Japan is an ancient form of nature and ancestor worship called Shinto </li></ul><ul><li>God dwells in nature </li></ul>
  28. 29. Main Shrine . Ise, Japan. c. 685. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
  29. 31. Main Shrine, Ise <ul><li>At a sacred site in a forest </li></ul><ul><li>The Main Shrine is rebuilt every twenty years in an elaborate ceremony </li></ul><ul><li>The structure is left pure: no paint, no nailsTawaraya Sotatsu. Waves at Matsushima . 17th Century. Japanese, Edo period. 152.0 × 369.9 cm. 59-7/8&quot; × 145-1/2&quot;. </li></ul>
  30. 32. Kitagawa Utamaro. Reflected Beauty, Seven Beauties Applying Make-Up: Okita . c. 1790. 14-1/4&quot; × 9-1/2&quot;. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
  31. 33. Reflected Beauty by Kitagawa Utamaro <ul><li>Woodcut printing became very popular </li></ul><ul><li>The prints are called ukiyo-e: pictures of the floating world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They depict scenes of daily life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bold outlines and clear un-shaded shapes Detached Palace . Kyoto, Japan. Gardens and tea house. 17th Century. </li></ul>