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Advanced Exposure


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Advanced Exposure

  1. 1. Advanced Exposure { Perfect Exposure by Michael Freeman}
  2. 2. Bare Bones <ul><li>Settings </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metering Mode </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>File Format </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instant Review </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight Clipping Warning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Histogram </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Bare Bones <ul><li>Metering Method </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Average </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Center Weighted </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Predictive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spot </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Bare Bones <ul><li>What do you want? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the photograph about? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What caught your eye? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know how bright you want the shot to be beforehand </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know how the light should be distributed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Bare Bones <ul><li>Likely Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scan the scene for exposure issues </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a major hotspot? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is that spot going to blow out and does it matter if it does? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the dynamic range too high for the camera to capture? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Bare Bones <ul><li>Key Tones </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the important subject in the shot? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How bright should that subject be? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Bare Bones <ul><li>Is clipping likely? Is there a conflict? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a conflict in how to expose? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You have a choice between changing the light or composition OR making a compromise on your exposure OR relying on special post-processing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example: You are shooting a backlit portrait. You can have a silhouette, or a blown out background. What do you choose for that situation? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compromise means that you accept either blown out highlights or blocked up shadows. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post-Processing includes HDR, merging exposures, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Clipping
  9. 9. Bare Bones <ul><li>Apply Metering </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meter in your preferred method and take the shot </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Bare Bones <ul><li>Review, Reshoot </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review your shot on your LCD </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reshoot if necessary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think about if you have time to sit and check your shots on the LCD </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also think about zooming in on the LCD to check for focus and exposure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Brightness and Stops <ul><li>Think of exposure in terms of how bright the image is </li></ul><ul><li>Changing your stop increase and decrease your image brightness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop refers to your aperture or shutter speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stopping up refers to slowing down your shutter speed or making your aperture larger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This means you will have a brighter image </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stopping down refers to increases your shutter speed or using a smaller aperture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This means you will have a dimmer image </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Exposure Terms <ul><li>Luminance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of light the reaches the sensor or eye </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Illuminance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The luminous power from a light source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflectance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of a surface to pass on light </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brightness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of light we see (the perceived luminance) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lightness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived reflectance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In light measurement, value equals brightness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exposure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a camera, this is the amount of light allowed to fall on the sensor </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Exposure Terms <ul><li>Over and Under Exposure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More of less than ideal exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highlights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The upper end of the tonal scale, the light areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shadows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The lower end of the tonal scale, the dark areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clipping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total loss of information in a pixel because of extreme over or under exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Black Point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The point of a tonal scale that is completely black </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R-0 G-0 B-0 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>White Point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The point on a tonal scale that is completely white </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R-255 G-255 B-255 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ratio between the maximum and minimum luminance </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Exposure Terms <ul><li>Contrast and Contrasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ration between high and low luminance excluding the maximum and minimum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which part of the brightness range is being used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High or low key </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Dynamic Range <ul><li>Low Dynamic Range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffuse lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thick atmosphere (smog, fog, smoke) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shooting away from your light source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medium High Dynamic Range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense light source casting sharp shadows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backlighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light and dark surfaces together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>True High Dynamic Range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light source or strong reflection in the frame </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Low Dynamic Range
  17. 18. Medium Dynamic Range
  18. 19. High Dynamic Range
  19. 20. Contrast
  20. 21. Metering <ul><li>Reflective Light Meter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like the one in your camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure the light reflecting off of the surface you are photographing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incident Light Meter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One choice on a handheld meter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures the light actually falling on the subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure to hold the meter very close to what you are shooting </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Metering Modes
  22. 23. Gray Card <ul><li>Gray cards reflect 18% of the light falling on a scene which makes them average or mid-tone </li></ul><ul><li>You spot meter on the gray card and use that reading to expose </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately your camera’s meter probably meters at 12-13% which means your exposure with a gray card may be a bit dark </li></ul>
  23. 24. Bracketing <ul><li>Stop up and down from your medium exposure </li></ul>
  24. 25. Bracketing