Part IPolitical Science as a Discipline A.M. SALVA
BASIS OF POLITICSOVERVIEWPolitics is the heart of political scienceAristotle: Politics is the study of the affairsof the polis (city-state), the most sovereignand inclusive association.Dahl: Politics is the existence of rules orauthority within the state. It is the study ofpower relationship among people in a givensociety as well as those relationships amongstates in the international community.
Varying outlooks of politics1. Politics as consensus and compromise2. Politics as society3. Politics as a power and the sistribution of resources4. Politics as a public affair5. Politics as an art of government6. Politics as academic7. Politics as a science
Politics as Consensus and CompromiseConsensus – the agreement of the people in aclass or group that characterizes the balancing ofinterest in order to advance a collective purposeto promote their welfare.Consensus politics is coined on 2 facets:i)Procedural consensus – willingness thruconsultation and bargainingii)Substantive consensus – overlappingideologies between parties agreeing fundamentalpolicy goals.
Politics as Society The presence of varying views, interest,conflicts, and diversities in a society givepolitics meaning and relevance in any givenfield of human activity, condition, organization.
Politics as Power and the Distribution of PowerAdrian Leftwich: Politics is at least the heartof all collective social activity, formal andinformal, public and private, in all humangroups, institutions and societies. It takes placeat every level of social interaction. Politics is in essence, power: the ability toachieve a desired income thru whatever means.It is about diversity & conflict but the essentialingredient is the existence of scarcity.
Politics as Power and the Distribution of PowerPower – is the ability to get things doneaccordingly through various means likeinfluence, authority, coercion or other use offorce and intimidation. Power is understood as the degree ofdominant relationship over another that is theability of the possessor to manipulate thebehavior of others in a manner not of theirchoosing.
Politics as Public AffairsPublic – refers to the apparatuses or institutionsof the government that are directly involved inthe conduct of state and political affairs. Theyare basically peddled by public financegenerated thru different means of taxation.Private affairs – dwell in the areas of lifewhere individuals manage and decide forthemselves as in cultural, artistic, personal,economic, social and domestic spheres.
Politics as Art of Government “What concerns the State?’” To study politics is in essence to studygovernment in terms of the conduct andmanagement of public affairs, the resolution ofconflicts through consensus or compromise, andthe production, distribution and use of resourcesfor welfare provisions in a society. Politics takes place in a polity and is playedand swayed in executive bureaucracies,legislative houses, etc. by specific stakeholders.
Some key terms Political Process. Miller (1991) Politics as a process whereby a group of people, whose opinions or interest are initially divergent, reach collective decisions which are generally accepted as binding on the group, and enforced as a common policy. Political Institutions. Refer to societal arrangements for legislating and enforcing laws, and providing for social services (Steward).
Defining Politics- The exercise of power- The making of political decisions- The practice of deception & manipulation- The allocation of limited resources, etc. “Politics is a study that tries to complement extreme power and interests in the society. It is an art and a science in harmonizing both ends together in the name of consensus and compromise”.
Defining Politics- A struggle for power, control and influence.- The central concept in the heart of the State.- The persons working directly and indirectly in the affairs of the government.- The struggle and compromise between the dominant and the minority party, the powerful and the powerless, the haves and the have-nots, the influenced and the influential.- A play everyone wants to keep in tilting the balance of power on his behalf.
Defining Politics Haque (2002):i) Politics is a collective activity involving peopleaccepting common membership or acknowledge ashared fateii)Politics presumes and initial diversity of views, ifnor about goals, then at least about meansiii)Politics involves reconciling such differencesthru discussion and persuassioniv)Political decisions become authoritative policyfor a group, binding members to decisions that areimplemented by force if necessary.
Basic Issues in Politics1. Legitimacy – Refers to the legal and psychological right to govern. It is what compels people to believe and follow orders emanating from political superiors. -Marcos legitimacy was put into question in 1986. He was forced to abandon and flee into exile. Same cases: Ceausescu of Romania and the Shah of Iran.
Basic Issues in Politics1. Legitimacy How does the government achieve legitimacy?i) By existing a long timeii) By governing welliii) By the structure of governmentiv) By manipulating national symbols
Basic Issues in Politics2. Sovereignty – Refers to the right of thegovernment to exist and control his subjects aswell as the territory over which the citizenslive and prosper. Sovereignty and legitimacy areconnected. With a decline of legitimacy mayalso come a decline of sovereignty (eg.Lebanon in 1976 & 1982).
Basic Issues in Politics3. Authority – The power of the leader to ruleand exact obedience on his people. It is soakedin legitimacy and rightfulness. It exists whensubordinates acknowledged the right ofsuperiors to give orders.Max Weber. Three classifications:i) Traditional Authorityii) Charismatic Authorityiii) Legal-Rational Authority
Basic Issues in Politics3. AuthorityMax Weber’s Classifications:i) Traditional Authority – based on customsand established way of doing thingsii) Charismatic Authority – stems frompersonality, thus breeds obedience among thepeopleiii) Legal-Rational Authority – based on rulesand procedures where people giver theirloyalty and obedience.
Basic Issues in Politics Authority comes with the office, “occupying an office may not be sufficient tocommand authority, the authority figuremust also cultivate respect.”Cord (1997): Effective authority requiresfirm, fair and wise leadership. Any tint ofcorruption undermines authority
Some Key Terms in Politics Political Process. Miller (1991). A process whereny divergent opinions or interests of people reach collective decisions which are generally accepted as binding and enforceable as a common policy. Political Institutions. Steward. Refer to societal arrangements for legislating and enforcing laws, and providing for social services. These institutions are branches of government that inhere respective functions in managing the affairs of the state.
Some Key Terms in Politics Political Situations. These are the events or phenomena in which participants mix common and competing interests in assessing or evaluating the impact or outcome of any political happenings that may directly or indirectly alter the social order. Political Dynamics. Refer to the varying forces that shape and influence the political play in a state like political parties, interest and pressure groups, public opinion and other propaganda.
Some Key Terms in Politics Political Values. These are political norms that guide the society, both the leaders and the followers in establishing and building a political consensus that is mutually enforcing among the actors in the organization.
POWER is the currency of politics. It is the capacity to produce intended effects...the capacity of a community to shape its own destiny. It is also the capacity of an individual or group to get its way against opposition.AUTHORITY is broader notion than power. It is the right to rule. Strictly, it is the right to act, rather than power to do so. However, authority creates its own power so long as people accept the authority-figure has the right to make decisions. A legitimate system of government is one based on authority.
The Study of Political SciencePolitics as Academics. Its main principle wasto discover the purpose upon which humansociety should be based.Politics as a Science. It is scientific because itis possible to acquire objectives andknowledge (truths) about the political realityand its complications by characterizing factsfrom values.
Growth of Political Science “Polis” “Chiefdom” “State” (City/state)Jean Bodin (1530-1596). French. The father ofPolitical science.Montesquieu(1689-1755). French, include themechanisms and organizations of government thatenveloped formal structure of administration(executive) and law writing (legislation). Man’s knowledge of the natural, physical and socialenvironment has developed through the times by the sharpobservation of things surrounding him.
New Approaches in Political Science1. Political Economy. The systematic production, utilization and distribution of scarce economic resources by the state t maximize people’s needs and wants in the most effective and efficient way the government may deem appropriate.
New Approaches in Political Science2. Public Choice Theory. This approachconsiders what the people prefer, and what theychose as option over other ones. It helps todetermine the focus of government policy basedon public preference.3. Rational Choice Theory. It purports tooverestimate human rationality and ignores thefact that people seldom possess a clear set ofpreferred goals and rarely make decisions in thelight of full and accurate knowledge.
Branches and Fields of Political Science1. Public Law2. Political Theory3. International Relations4. Public Administration5. Political Philosophy6. Political Dynamics7. Comparative Government
Goals and Importance of Political SciencePrimary goal: Education for citizenship.Core competencies:1. Knowledge-Based2. Competence-Based3. Skill-Based
Concept, Models, TheoriesConcept. A general idea about something thatappears to be conclusive like the ideas on socialclasses, rights, power, laws, etc.Model. A theoretical representation of empiricaldata to advance understanding of significantrelationships and interactions like model criteriafor public choice and system analysis.Theory. A systematic explanation of practicaldata that is presented as a reliable truth to thepublic which can be cossidered as more or lessuseful in understanding political phenomenon.
Structural Process of Political Science 1. Executive Process. Entails knowledge, competence and skills in running and managing the powers and functions of the state. 2. Legislative Process. The complicated process of legislation must be geared always at the survival interest of a state, its people, and its need in relation to international communities. 3. Legal and Judicial Process. Covers the interpretation, enforcement and administration of laws as they affect various machineries.