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  1. 1. Urban Infrastructure Provision and Management Master’s Programme Week-3 Session-5 Strategic Principal of Infrastructure Institute of Urban Development Studies
  2. 2. Recap <ul><li>By Instructor </li></ul>
  3. 3. Session Objectives <ul><li>By the end of session Participants will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>define the principle of reducing consumption of resources in urban infrastructure management. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Concept of eco-efficiency <ul><li>The concept of eco-efficiency (ecological efficiency) was initially developed by the World Business Council on Sustainable Development (WBCSD) at the beginning of the ‘90s in an attempt to overcome the apparent conflict between economic and environmental objectives </li></ul>
  5. 5. Concept of eco-efficiency <ul><li>The WBCSD defines eco-efficiency as “being achieved by the delivery of competitively priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and bring quality of life, while progressively reducing ecological impacts and resource intensity throughout the life-cycle to a level at least in line with the Earth’s estimated carrying capacity“ (WBCSD, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>In short, it means creating more value with less impact </li></ul>
  6. 6. Eco-Efficiency Criteria for Infrastructure <ul><li>Minimization </li></ul><ul><li>Material Intensity of Goods and Services. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Intensity of Goods and Services. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Area Dispersion and Implementation of Recycling System. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Eco-Efficiency Criteria for Infrastructure……. <ul><li>Maximization </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Renewable Resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Product Durability </li></ul><ul><li>Service Intensity of Goods and Services. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Minimization of Material Intensity of Goods and Services <ul><li>Materials requires energy and create pollution and waste throughout their lifecycle. </li></ul><ul><li>It could be through mining, via refining, manufacturing, transport and use. </li></ul><ul><li>The total mass consumed in the lifecycle of delivering products or services can therefore be a useful measure of environmental impact in its own right and also a proxy for others. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Minimization of Material Intensity of Goods and Services……… <ul><li>Material Intensity of Goods and services could be measured through MIPS. </li></ul><ul><li>MIPS (material intensity per service unit) is an indicator based on the material flow and the number of services or utilizations provided. Reducing the MIPS of a product is equivalent to increasing resource productivity. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Minimization of Material Intensity of Goods and Services……… <ul><li>The material intensity of goods and services can be reduced through </li></ul><ul><li>Lean Product Designs. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of less material intensive raw materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimization of off-cuts and off-specialization products in manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Effective re-use and re-cycling of products. </li></ul><ul><li>Water Conservation. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Minimization of Energy Intensity of Goods and Services <ul><li>All Stages of the life-cycle of any product or service requires energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Production, Distribution and use of this energy create pollution and waste materials and generally deplete non-renewable fossil fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of the Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity of Goods and Services </li></ul><ul><li>therefore has great environmental </li></ul><ul><li>benefits. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Minimization of Energy Intensity of Goods and Services <ul><li>Reduction of the Energy Intensity of Goods and Services could be achieved through </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Energy Efficient Production and distribution processes and equipments. </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of heat between processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation of hot process equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Better utilization of Day-Light and natural ventilation. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Minimization of Toxic Area Dispersion <ul><li>Toxic or otherwise harmful substances are of particular environmental concern, especially when such substances are not quickly breakdown in the environment in which they escape or being emitted. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of dispersion of toxics from the lifecycle of Goods and Services is therefore essential. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Minimization of Toxic Area Dispersion…….. <ul><li>Use of safer substitutes that are less toxic or breakdown more easily is the preferred approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatively technical and managerial changes may be required to better contain toxics throughout their lifecycle and safely dispose of them after their use. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Implementation of Recycling System. <ul><li>The utilization of material and energy can generally be improved by re-use in the same or another system. </li></ul><ul><li>Eco-efficiency stress the need of recycling to minimize the environmental impact of their processing. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Implementation of Recycling System……… <ul><li>Recyclability requires products to be made o recyclable materials, in ways that facilitates their recovery, for instance through material marking, minimization of material diversity and design disassembly vice-versa. Material specifications in product design should not unnecessarily disadvantage recycled material. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Discussion <ul><li>How The Efficiency Principles could be applied in Urban Road Projects. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusion <ul><li>By Participants </li></ul>
  19. 19. Thank You