Fracture types & managemental approach

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fracture, types and its managemental approach of fracture, precausions during fracture.

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Fracture types & managemental approach

  1. 1. Different Fractures and their Approaches Prepared By: Dr. ALOK BHARTI (M.V.Sc.), C.V.Sc (SVVU), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad.
  2. 2. Mandibular Fracture
  3. 3. Branch of facial artery and vein
  4. 4. Parotid Duct Incision In the masseter muscle
  5. 5. Scapular Spine Fracture
  6. 6. <ul><li>large, flat bone composed of a body with a longitudinally running, flat spine; a neck; and the glenoid, or articular surface. </li></ul><ul><li>prominence at the ends of the scapular spine, the acromion – predisposed to fracture or avulsion </li></ul><ul><li>trapezius muscle, supraspinatus muscle, and the infraspinatus muscles to be retracted to expose the body and spine </li></ul>
  7. 8. Fracture of humerus <ul><li>Humerus is broader, stronger towards the proximal extremity from the mid shaft – fractures are usually found towards the distal part of the shaft </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>1. M. triceps brachii (long head) </li></ul><ul><li>2. M. triceps brachii (lateral head) </li></ul><ul><li>3. M. triceps brachii (medial head) </li></ul><ul><li>4. M. teres minor </li></ul><ul><li>5. M. branchialis </li></ul><ul><li>6. Radial nerve </li></ul><ul><li>7. Medial branch of superficial </li></ul><ul><li>8. Lateral branch; ramus </li></ul><ul><li>9. Deep ramus </li></ul><ul><li>10. Muscular branches to triceps </li></ul><ul><li>11. M. extensor carpi radialis </li></ul><ul><li>12. M.anconeus </li></ul>
  9. 10. Humeral Head Fracture
  10. 11. Fracture of Humeral Shaft Brachiocephalicus Cephalic vein Brachialis muscle Radial nerve Lateral head of triceps muscle Lateral Approach
  11. 12. Lateral head of triceps muscle Brachialis muscle Radial nerve Lateral Approach
  12. 13. Superficial pectoral muscle Biceps brachii muscle Long head of triceps muscle Neurovascular bundle Medial Approach Biceps brachii muscle reflected caudally Brachiocephalicus muscle
  13. 14. Fracture of distal extremity (LA)
  14. 15. Lateral aspect of the left elbow joint of a dog. The M. triceps brachii has been left in situ after removal of the other surrounding musculature. <ul><li>1. Humerus </li></ul><ul><li>2. Supratrochlear foramen </li></ul><ul><li>3. Capitulum </li></ul><ul><li>4. Trochlea </li></ul><ul><li>5. Lateral epicondyle </li></ul><ul><li>6. Lateral collateral ligament </li></ul><ul><li>7. M. triceps brachii </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Olecranon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9. Annular ligament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10. Radius </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I I. Cut edge of M. anconeus </li></ul><ul><li>12. Ulna </li></ul><ul><li>13. Interosseus membrane </li></ul><ul><li>14. M. abductor pollicis longus </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Humerus </li></ul><ul><li>M. triceps brachii </li></ul><ul><li>Olecranon </li></ul><ul><li>Trochlea </li></ul><ul><li>Capitulum </li></ul><ul><li>Medial collateral ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Oblique ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Medial epicondyle </li></ul><ul><li>Radius </li></ul><ul><li>Ulna </li></ul>Medial aspect of the left elbow joint of a dog. The M. triceps brachii has been left in situ after removal of the other surrounding musculature.
  16. 17. Medial Approach
  17. 18. Radial Fracture <ul><li>The radius is formed proximally by the oval and concave radial head, which articulates with the humeral capitullum. The metaphyseal area tapers slightly to become the flattened radial diaphysis. The diaphysis is of uniform shape, flattened cranial-caudally, and curves slightly as it moves from a lateral position at the elbow to a medial position at the carpus. Distally the metaphysis enlarges and enters the epiphysis. The distal epiphysis has a concave articular surface that sits upon the radial carpal bone. A medial pointed prominence, the styloid process serves as proximal attachment of the medial collateral ligament. </li></ul><ul><li>The medullary canal of the radius is usually uniform in size and much wider medial-laterally than cranialcaudally. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Lateral aspect of the pelvic and thigh regions of the left pelvic limb of a dog. The fascia lata and biceps femoris muscle have been removed to reveal the deeper muscles.The gluteal muscles have been reflected dorsally. <ul><li>M. gluteus medius </li></ul><ul><li>M. gluteus superficialis </li></ul><ul><li>M. gluteus profundus </li></ul><ul><li>M. piriformis </li></ul><ul><li>5 Hip joint capsule </li></ul><ul><li>6 M. sartorius </li></ul><ul><li>7 M. tensor fasciae latae </li></ul><ul><li>M. rectus femoris </li></ul><ul><li>M. vastus lateralis </li></ul><ul><li>Femur </li></ul><ul><li>11 M. quadratus femoris </li></ul><ul><li>12 Ischiatic nerve </li></ul><ul><li>13 Caudal gluteal artery and vein </li></ul><ul><li>14 M. adductor </li></ul><ul><li>15 M. semimembranosus </li></ul><ul><li>16 M. semitendinosus </li></ul><ul><li>17 M. abductor cruris caudalis </li></ul>
  19. 21. Condylar Fracture of femur Patellar tendon Vastus lateralis Incision in fascia lata & joint capsule
  20. 23. Subluxation of Patella in Cattle
  21. 24. Three forms exist: • dorsal patellar luxation or fixation in adults; sporadic incidence - Temporary or permanent fixation of patella on upper part of medial femoral trochlear ridge. • lateral patellar luxation ; congenital, uncommon Complete or incomplete lateral displacement of patella . • medial patellar luxation ; congenital, rare limb flexed with patella freely moveable
  22. 25. Lateral view of left stifle joint of cow. 1 . femur; 2 . patella; 3 . and 4 . medial and lateral menisci; 5 . tibia; 6 . fibula; 7 . and 8 . medial and lateral trochlear ridge; 9 . patellar fibrocartilage; 10 . tibial tuberosity; 11 . medial straight patellar ligament (sectioned distally in patellar desmotomy); 12 . and 13 . middle and lateral straight patellar ligaments; 14 . tendon of biceps femoris muscle; 15 . lateral femoropatellar ligament; 16 . lateral collateral ligament.

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