Care & Management of Cow (animal) before during and After Parturation (Calving)<br /> Even though the Parturation is normal physiological process, it requires to take due care at all stages of Parturation by manager of the herd.<br /> Before Parturation:<br /> Turning cow into a loose box: To isolate from other animals, animal of advance pregnancy must be separated into calving box which must be cleaned & properly disinfected, bedded with clean, soft & absorbent litter<br />Guarding Against Milk Fever:In advanced pregnancy stage high yielding & first calvers are susceptible to Milk fever. To avoid it, provide enough minerals especially calcium by bone meal in daily diet. Give large doses of Vit. D about a week period to calving.<br />Avoid Milking:Prior to parturation which is likely to delay parturation by few hours.<br />Watch for parturation signs:Signs to know primary stage of parturation which are udder becomes large, dislended, herd, depressed or hollow appearance on either side of tail head, vulva enlarged in size, thick mucus discharge from valva, and uneasiness of the animal.<br />
During Parturation: <br />Dilation Phase:Consists of the acts Le down & get ups, uneasiness due to labour pain, observe these acts from safe distance without making disturbances to animal.<br />Parturation period:In normal case period is of 2-3 hrs while in first calving 4-5 hrs or more Observe from safe distance without disturbing the animal.<br />Watch for presentation of Calf:The phase of expulsion of foetus, observe the appearance of water bag & its gradual emergence, bursting of it and appearance of fore feet with hoof & mouth.<br />Normal presentation:Any deviation from normal presentation of calf occurs; the immediate help of veterinarian should be taken being care of Dystokia.<br />
<br />After Parturation:<br />Expulsion of placenta / after birth: The placenta is discharged within 5-6 hrs. After calving in normal case while if not discharged within 6-7 hrs. Get the help of veterinarian and treat as per requirement.<br />Supply Luke-warm drinking water to cow.<br />When placenta expelled, prevent cow from eating.<br />The placenta should be properly disposed off by burying in ground.<br />Clean cow's body with clean & warm water with antiseptic.<br />Supply moistened bran with crude sugar or molasses.<br />
Care with regard to milking of cow:<br />After Parturation when first milking, ensure that all blockages from teats removed. <br />Cow may be milked three times a day until the inflammation disappears from the udder.<br />Provide enough minerals i.e. calcium & phosphorus through diet & do not milk fully at a "time to avoid milk fever in high yielding cows<br />Care with regards to feeding:<br />Types of feeds provided - milk laxative, palatable &c nutritious.<br />Suitable feeds - Wheat bran, oats, and linseed oil seeds.<br />DCP & TDN of ration must be 16-18% & 70% respectively.<br />40-60 gms. Sterilized bone meal & 40 gm common salt may be adder', to grains. <br />Succulent green, palatable fodders containing 50-60% legumes are suitable while amount concentrates should be increased gradually in three weeks.<br />
Immediately after giving BIRTH:<br />The Mother licks/ washes her newborn. This helps with mother–newborn bonding, and gives the newborn some "get up and go". <br />The newborn then attempts to stand. This is followed by balancing, then experimenting with moving its legs, progressing to it’s 1st steps. The mother often positions herself so she can moo, baa ect to her infant, and so she can nudge her newborn towards her teats. <br />The newborn will instinctively “put its mouth over” a teat that touches the side of its face (called the ROOTING reflex) Sucking IS a reflex in the newborn. <br />The season "of birth" for these young ruminants is "nature designed" to fit in with their feed needs. <br />Mothers need abundant feed to supply milk to their young. There needs to be adequate feed for her young once they are weaned. <br />Calves, lambs, kids and fawn are all born as "monogastrics" ("nono" = one).. which enables them to digest a milk diet. <br />As adults they are RUMINANTS, and digest pasture. (ect..)<br /> Part of rearing these young ruminants involves introducing them to diet that assists them to become a ruminant. <br /> Pasture provides all the essential "goodies" for health and growth. It's far less expensive than milk!! <br />
COLOSTRUM – the 1st drink & a very vital drink..<br /><ul><li>Colostrum is the milk in the mother's udder/teats immediately after she gives birth.
The newborn sucking from the mother is part of the newborn –mother bonding. Colostrum provides warmth, fluids plus many nutrients, and important antibodies. </li></ul>Re antibodies: <br /><ul><li>The placental structure in cattle, sheep, deer, & goat limit the transfer of immunity, because antibody molecules are just too big to be transferred.
The ruminant mother’s colostrum contains these needed antibodies. She “manufactures them” as the result of HER exposure to the diseases in the environment.
Once the newborn absorbs these antibodies, it becomes the newborns protection/ immunity till about 7- 8 weeks of age, until the animals own immune system takes over. </li></ul>Nutrients in colostrum: <br /><ul><li>The fat content in colostrum is higher than normal milk.. Fat provides energy.
It is rich in the fat soluble vitamins A, D and E.
It contains protein. </li></li></ul><li>Colostrum Quality: I n short, colostrum from a first time mother is good. However colostrum from an older mother will have more antibodies, and they are capable of producing greater amounts of colostrum. Each time the mother is “milked”, the quality of her colostrum is reduced. <br />Emergency Colostrum: -Colostrum can safely be stored in the freezer for a year. -The VERY BEST colostrum is obtained soon after birth & from an older dam. -Colostrum needs careful handling to avoid contamination. (clean equipment, clean hands)- When freezing colostrum use small containers. (plastic bags, or plastic containers.) Because its faster, and easier to thaw. (If several litres are needed, then thaw out several containers.)-When thawing: The temperature should not go above "blood temperature". Too much heat will damage it. There is merit in giving a weak newborn a small amount of colostrum; perhaps, just enough to get it on its feet. You really want the infant to drink from its mother. When the newborn is on its feet then you can help to teach it to drink from its mother. The vets & farm supply stores usually sell "man made" colostrum. BUT this colostrum is minus antibodies.<br />
For the newborn:<br /><ul><li> Make sure your newborn has a good feed of colostrum. * * * Spay the newborns navel with iodine. * * * *
This is so VERY VERY important. Bacteria are every where in the </li></ul>enviroment.<br /><ul><li> The newborn navel (umbilicus) is warmth, and damp. Bacteria appreciate these Bacteria can speedilytravel up the umbilicus/navel and get into the newborns blood. This can cause so many serious health problems: Navel ill, joint ill, liver abscess, bladder infections, ectect and even death.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li> If possible, follow weaning system. Usually the calf is separated permanently from it’s mother after the first feeding because it simplifies management and reduces the food and labour costs for rearing. At present, there is a great variation in practice regarding the best time to remove the calf from the dam. Some dairymen allow the calf to remain with it’s dam for 2 or 3 days or until the milk is suitable to put in the regular supply. It probably makes littllediffereces as to when the calf is removed from its dam.
The calf is best maintained in an individual pen or stall</li></ul> or the first few weeks . This allows more careful <br /> attention to individuals . After about 8 weeks of age, it<br /> may be handled with a group <br />